Wednesday, January 30, 2008
DR. NITISH PRIYADARSHI
The origin of coal
Coal is a result of the accumulation and slow decay of plant remains in sedimentary strata. It undergoes in situ compaction under water with time, accompanied by biochemical processes such as decomposition due to bacterial action, dehydration, loss of volatile compounds (e.g. methane, higher hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide and nitrogen) and densification to form various ranks of coal depending on environmental conditions. In absence of atmospheric oxygen, the plant matter is further degraded by the action of anaerobic bacteria, which extract and utilize oxygen from organic molecules containing oxygen like lignin.
Gold in coals
Gold is an ultra trace constituent of coal and is rarely determined. There are early reports of gold in coal, for example it was detected in a coal from Wyoming, USA. About 1 ppm gold was found in some coals from Utah and upto 3 ppm gold in coal from Cambria, Wyoming-North Dakota, USA. Goldschmidt and Peters found 0.2-1ppm gold in some German coal ashes. Leutwein in 1956 mentioned some peats with rather high amount of gold.
There are some results (as parts per billion) for gold in coal, namely less than 1 to 10 for Australia, 1.0-2.5 for the Lithgow seam, NSW, Australia, 10-140 for Belgium, mean value for Bulgaria, 1-96 for Canada, 1.2-10 for the United Kingdom.
Recently samples of Jurassic and Paleogene brown coals and peat samples from the South-eastern region of the Western-Siberian platform were analyzed for gold by the neutron-activation method.
Mean content of gold in Jurassic coals is 30 ± 8 ppb, in Paleogene coals is 10.6 ± 4.8 ppb, and in peat is 6 ± 1.4 ppb. Concentrations of gold as high as 4.4 ppm were found in coal ash and 0.48 ppm in the peat ash. Coal beds with anomalous gold contents were found at Western-Siberian platform for the first time.
However, there is a need for much more data to clarify the situation.
International Journal of Coal Geology Volume 68, Issues 3-4, 2 October 2006, Pages 127-134
Dr. Nitish Priyadarshi
Wednesday, January 23, 2008
IS IT SAFE TO BURY CARBON DIOXIDE TO REDUCE GLOBAL WARMING?
Dr. Nitish Priyadarshi
Each time you draw breath today, 380 molecules per million are carbon dioxide. That portion climbs about two molecules every year. Scientists know that carbon dioxide is warming the atmosphere, which in turn is causing sea level to rise, and that the carbon dioxide absorbed by the oceans is acidifying the water. But they are unsure of exactly how climate could alter across the globe, how fast sea level might rise, what a more acidic ocean could mean, which ecological systems on the land and in the sea would be most vulnerable to climate change and how these development might affect human health and well-being.
By burning fossil fuels-coal, oil, and natural gas- we are adding to the concentration of carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere. The carbon dioxide concentration is now 379 parts per million. This is significantly more than it has been at any time in the past 600,000 years. The consensus among climatologists is that the increased carbon dioxide concentration is the main cause of the increase in global temperature.
One way to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide being released into the atmosphere is to rely more on alternative energy source that do not produce CO2. These include hydroelectric, wind, solar, nuclear, geothermal, and tidal energy. Each of these has limitations, and it will be difficult to make a quick shift from fossil fuels to these other sources. But what if the CO2 produced by burning fossil fuels did not reach the atmosphere? Instead of letting CO2 go up the smokestack and into the air, can we capture it and put it somewhere? Is this possible?
Yes, it is. The process is called CO2 capture and storage. It is being done on a small scale right now. It has the potential to make a significant difference in the amount of CO2 we release into the atmosphere. As the name implies, there are two phases to the process. The first challenge is to capture the CO2 instead of letting it go up the smokestack. Then it has to be stored or “sequestered” safely and for a long time. The idea of sequestering CO2 to reduce the amount entering the atmosphere is fairly new. But the technology needed to do this has been developed for other reasons.
The best place to capture CO2 is at the major sources of emissions. Power stations that generate electricity produce about one-third of global CO2 emissions. In addition, CO2 is a by-product of iron and steel production, and cement production. CO2 is also removed from natural gas before it can be used as a fuel. These industrial processes are good candidates for CO2 capture and storage because they are large-scale sources in a fixed place. In contrast, it would be difficult to capture CO2 emissions from automobiles.
Storage in Geological Formations is currently the most promising solution for widespread, long term sequestration of CO2. The study shows that carbon dioxide could be compressed as it leaves the power plant and injected through a well deep underground into a natural sub layer consisting of porous rock, such as sandstone or limestone, saturated with saltwater. Some projects are already under the way. In order to reduce greenhouse gases and global warming, stored carbon dioxide must be kept out of atmosphere for hundreds or thousands of years. Oil and natural-gas reservoirs, deep saltwater aquifers, and coal seams have existed for millions of years with only very gradual changes. There is strong evidence that if properly managed, these formations could provide for long-term storage of carbon dioxide.
There are many underground sealed geological “traps” that have never contained oil or natural gas. Their pores are filled with water. These are called aquifers. The aquifers that are most suitable for CO2 storage are deep underground .They are filled with salt water, so they are unsuitable for supplying or storing fresh water for human use. CO2 would partially dissolve in the water in the aquifer. In some rock types, it might react with minerals to form stable carbonate deposits. This would permanently lock up the CO2. Geological studies would need to be made, as is routinely done for oil and natural-gas reservoirs, to confirm that the aquifer would not leak carbon dioxide.
Another potential storage medium is in coal deposits that are too deep to be mined. Coal is mostly carbon. It will absorb CO2 and lock it up permanently. In the process it releases methane that was previously adsorbed to the coal surface and that may be recovered. But the big problem arises here. Methane the other green house gas if not trapped properly can create more problem than CO2. After carbon dioxide, methane is the second most important greenhouse gas. Scientists believe that methane may have caused up to 20 percent of the global warming in the last 200 years. The gas is also highly flammable, which means it catches fire easily. Though methane remains in the atmosphere for only twelve years it may cause problem if not handed properly.
Storage of the carbon dioxide is envisaged either in the deep geological formations, deep oceans, or in the form of mineral carbonates. In the case of deep ocean storage, there is a risk of greatly increasing the problem of ocean acidification, a problem that also stems from the excess of carbon dioxide already in the atmosphere and oceans. Geological formations are currently considered the most promising sequestration sites, and these are estimated to have storage capacity of at least 2000 Gt C02 (currently, 30 Gt per year of carbon dioxide is emitted due to human activities). The State like Jharkhand of India which is reach in coal mines and thermal power stations, most of the areas are composed of highly weathered metamorphic rocks. Great amount of small to medium size fractures and joints are present in rocks. In the coal fields area numerous faulting has also been identified. It can allow escape of the carbon dioxide back to the atmosphere if injected here. It will multiply the problem.
Possible risks of capturing carbon dioxide:
1.Two classes of risk must be addressed for every storage reservoir: gradual and sudden leakage. Gradual release of carbon dioxide merely some of the green house gas to the air. Rapid escape of large amounts, in contrast, could have worse consequences than not storing it at all.
2. Although carbon dioxide is usually harmless, a large, rapid release of the gas is worrisome because high concentrations can kill.
3. Gradual leaks may pose little danger to life, but they could still defeat the climate goals of sequestration.
4. Geologists will have to search for faults in the caprock that could allow escape as well as determine the amounts of injection pressure that could fracture it.
5. Even if the geology is favorable, using storage formations where there are old wells may be problematic.
1.Socolow, R.H. 2005. Can we bury Global Warming. Scientific American India.
4.Our Warming Planet, 2004. Green alert, Times Editions, Singapore.
Dr. Nitish Priyadarshi
Monday, January 21, 2008
Dr. Nitish Priyadarshi.
At present many Indian news channels are searching the historical records of the Lord Ram and place of incidents in Ramayana in country of Sri Lanka as well as in India. After the Ram Setu controversy many of us are showing interest regarding the existence of Lord Ram and his warriors. Recently I found an old research report in my Home Library. Report is regarding the site of the Lanka during the Ramayana age.
Report was published by historian Mr. H.D. Sankalia in the year 1971 in the Statesman news paper dated 5/10/1971. According to the report Chotanagpur (Jharkhand State) was the Lanka of Ramayana.
Sankalia is of the opinion that the Ramayana belongs to early iron-age and the Lanka in the holy epic can not be the island of Ceylon (Lanka). According to him, the Lanka of the Ramayana was somewhere in the Chotanagpur Plateau (Ranchi and Hazaribag district) of Jharkhand State of India and the ‘Vanaras’ and ‘Raksasas’ were the merely the Adivasis (tribe) of the area. Asurs were the early settlers in the Jharkhand. He has deduced from archaeological, geographical and botanical interpretation of the clues in the epics. His theory is that the story or the various incidents could have taken place in present Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand Plateau and Eastern Madhya Pradesh as early as 1,500 B.C.
He has sited excavations at Kausambi, Prahladpur, Chirand, Sonpur etc. to reveal the existence of a settled way of life about circa 2,000-1,500 B.C. These earlier cultures were destroyed or displaced by an iron-manufacturing people as is evident from archaeological findings at Mahisadal and Rajar-Dhipi.
In Ranchi district alone are found Asur forts and cemeteries. Over a hundred villages scattered through this region have Asur sites of this “long ancient people”, who were thought by the Mundas as a tall, huge limbed race of Herculean strength, having a much higher civilization. Asur graves are in irregular order and are marked by the slabs. The roof stones are generally 8 feet and sometimes 10 to 12 feet long.
He concludes that the critical edition of Ramayana belongs to the early iron age. “ this is amply proved by the repeated references to weapons of ‘Kalayasa’, Karsayasa’ and ‘Ayasa’ definitely means iron and not copper. At that time in Jharkhand iron smelting by the Asur tribes was flourishing industry. “The iron chest (box) with eight wheels in which the bow of Rudra was kept and which Rama alone could wield, requires highly advanced iron technology.
Ramrekha Pahar (hill) in sylvan surroundings about 25 miles west of Simdega town South of Ranchi district, it is a place of pilgrimage as well as beauty spot. According to Ranchi Gazetteer Lord Ram with his consort Sita and his brother Lakshman spent here a part of their exile. Ramrekha is so called because it is said to possess the footprints of Ram. There is a cave assiciated with the sojourn of Ram during his period of exile. Near the cave is Jalkunda (waterpit) called Ram Ganga, said to have been excavated by Ram through the stroke of his mighty arrow for bathing. This kund resembles a bow. It is deep and has a permanent flow of water. Its water is credited with properties to cure leprosy.
Dr. Nitish Priyadarshi
Friday, January 18, 2008
IRON SMELTING BY ASUR TRIBE- A THING OF THE PAST
DR. NITISH PRIYADARSHI
The word Asur occurs in a number of places in the Rigveda, Brahamanas, Aranyakas, Upanishadas and Epics which comprise the sacred literature of the Hindus. The Asur have been identified as primitive tribe in Jharkhand State of India. Their original occupation was iron smelting but now very few live by this profession. When the Asurs came to their present area of habitation is not known, but according to legend they lived with their kinsmen the Mundas, who in course in time drove them away. Driven by their kinsmen, the Asurs took shelter in the Netarhat Plateau, where they have been living for centuries unknown. According to other thoughts Asur had settled in Jharkhand before one thousand B.C.
There are references to the asurs in the Rigveda describing them as great builders. Centuries of isolation coupled with exploitation and subjugation by one or the other alien element, have driven the Asur into comparatively inaccessible tract of the land amidst hills and mountains, forests and undulating slopes.
The Asur locality is known as the Netharhat group of plateaus within Chotanagpur Plateau of Jharkhand State of India. The Netarhat plateau hills are of a nearly uniform height of about 3,600 feet above the sea level. The Plateau is formed of LATERITE rocks. It is from these rocks, the Asur used to extract iron ore for iron smelting.
Iron-smelting used to be the principal occupation of the Asurs, but now it has ceased to be so. Few years ago only one furnace was found working at village Ramgaria in Bishunpur thana where only two families worked and earned a very meager living.
IRON SMELTING BY ASURS:-
Three varities of iron ore are recognized by the Asur at the Netharhat Plateau. One is magnetite which is called POLA by the Asur. The other one is Haematite from coal measures known as BICHI and third one is Haematites from Laterite known as GOTA. The Asur were able to locate a site for the ores by observation and experience. On the basis of their family labour iron smelting was carried on by them. Green sal trees were cut by them in the neighbourhood of their furnace for preparing char coal as char coal of green sal was capable of generating sufficient heat for smelting iron ore in their furnaces which were usually located in the neighbourhood of water sources like Dari, Chua or rivulet.
The Asur family engaged in iron smelting perform SANSIKUTASI worship which may be called productive magic, as it is aimed at securing good iron while smelting. All the implements required for smelting and black smithy are collected in the front of the house. A cock and hen both of red colours are sacrificed during the worship. The ritual is followed by dance and drinks and merry-making. The peculiar feature of this festival is that musical instruments which are so essential for all social and festive occasions among the Asur are not played on this occasion when the youths and girls are engaged in dancing. Every head of a family has to don himself with a new piece of cloth on this occasion which is considered important in the annual cycle of festivals of the Asur.
During the last several decades due to the introduction of improved metallurgy and the forest conservation policy of the Government imposing restriction on wanton cutting of forest gave a final death blow to the industry of iron smelting in this plateau. Iron-smelting has now practically become a thing of the past.
Gupta, S.P. 1976. The Asur, Ethno-Biological Profile. Bihar Tribal Welfare Research Institute, Ranchi.
Gupta, S.P. 1974. Tribes of Chotanagpur Plateau. Bihar Tribal Welfare Research Institute, Ranchi.
Ranchi District Gazetteer, 1970. Government of Bihar.
S.K.Singh, 2005. Inside Jharkhand. Crown Publications, Ranchi.
Dr. Nitish Priyadarshi
Monday, January 14, 2008
Dr. Nitish Priyadarshi
The Old Testament relates that the earth was made in seven days. Most geologists believe that even God couldn't accomplish the task quite that fast.
It has been mentioned that the earth is billion of years old. This is the modern view; the ideas of James Ussher, the theologian who calculated in year 1650 from the biblical record that the earth was created on the morning of 28th October in the year 4004 B.C. held sway well into the nineteenth century. According to Stephen Hawking, the noted British cosmologists the Universe or earth came into existence between Time 0 and the following trillionth of a second about fifteen billion years ago. Indeed there are those who even today ignore the overwhelming scientific evidence to the contrary and claim that the biblical legends tell the true story of the earth's creation and history. Up until the 17 and 18 hundreds most everybody believed that the earth was young. A mere 6 thousand years or so.
No where in the Bible or any other religion does God tell us the exact year of creation. But by simply studying the scriptures we can certainly get an idea of when and how this took place.
Scientists with the help of radioactive dating method tell us that the earth is billions of years old, was formed in a molten state; and that it took millions of years for the earth to cool to its solid state that we know today. But still today many young earth creationists believe that the earth was created instantaneously about 6 thousand years ago.
Both of these are belief systems. Neither one can be proven because no one was there to witness the event, and it can not be repeated. But we can examine the evidence and decide which one is more plausible.
Over the last 10 to 20 years, evidence has been gathered which seems to indicate that the earth was created in an instant as mentioned in different religions. The evidence comes from the study of a feature of many igneous rocks ( rocks made by lava).
Most geologists have long accepted a “magmatic” origin for large granite plutons, “batholiths” in which crystallization is imagined to have attenuated over million of years, their magmatic view was technically challenged by Robert Gentry, a physicist with a yen to confirm the biblical tale of genesis. He suggested that the polonium halos, which are found in the minerals biotite and fluorite in granites and associated pegmatites, prove that the host rocks were created, not from magma, but almost instantaneously during the Day-1 of the Genesis Week.
When God created the earth, He left His signature in the earth's foundation granite (type of rock) in the form of microscopic spheres created by pinpoints of the element Polonium 218. Polonium-218 is radioactive and has a half-life of about 3 minutes (in other words, they emit radiation for only a few minutes). In its decay process, this element emits alpha particles. These subatomic particles mark the surrounding rock, producing spheres around the initial pinpoint of the element. If a rock is cut and examined under a microscope, these spheres appear as halos around the initial tiny deposit of the element. Halos produced by other radioactive elements differ from the halos produced by Polonium 218.
The rocks of the earth had to have been created and solidified within about 3 minutes for this element to have left its halos. If the earth had been in a molten state any longer than this, all the isolated points of Polonium 218 would have disappeared, leaving none to cause halos when the rock solidified. However, all evolutionary theories say that the earth was molten for million years.
Since Polonium 218 halos are found by the trillions throughout all the granites of the world, all of that granite had to originally become solid in for less than three minutes, when it was first created, in order for the Polonium 218 has to form properly.
There are many Polonium 218, 214, and 210 halos in granite; in fact, careful specimen counts and extrapolations based on them reveal that there are trillions upon trillions of them in granites all over the world. The situation gets more interesting with Polonium-214 halos. The half life of Polonium-214 is .000164 second. This means that the rock would have to cool in less than 1/1000th of a second after the polonium-214 was created. No known processes of nature can cool and solidify a rock that rapidly.
When a small speck of inclusion of a radioactive substance, such as Uranium-238, is trapped in the rock, the uranium emits alpha particles which destroy the crystal structure of the mineral. Since the alpha particles are emitted from the uranium with a particular speed, the alpha particles can travel only a certain distance through the rock before they stop. When the alpha particles stop, they discolor the rock. Since the alpha particles are emitted in all directions, a spherical shell of discoloration is produced.
While uranium is decaying to lead, it passes through fifteen steps. When an atom of uranium emits an alpha particle, the atom no longer is uranium but becomes thorium which in turn gives off a particle and turns into another element.
The size of each halo is determined by the speed of the alpha particle, for each element in the decay chain has emitted particles with a specified velocity. Thus if one finds a halo of a certain radius, he often can determine what element formed the halo from the radius alone.
Polonium-218, polonium-214 and polonium-210 are the radioactive substance which are responsible for three halos in the characteristic five-ringed uranium halo. These three isotopes of polonium are found today only mixed up in Uranium-238. This is because polonium decays so rapidly that it cannot be stored for more than a few minutes. The only reason it even exists is that it is constantly being formed by the decay of uranium.
Two factors are required before a halo can form.
· A small speck of a radioactive substance must be included in the molten rock before it cools.
· The rock must solidify and form a crystal before all of the radioactivity is ended.
Many theories have been put forward against the Gentry’s hypothesis. According to different geologists Gentry is physicist, not a geologist. He doesn’t follow accepted geologic reporting practice and consistently fails to provide the information that a third party would need to collect comparable samples for testing. Gentry utilized microscope thin sections of rocks from samples sent to him by others from various places around the world.
Gentry also provides no explanation for how polonium alone finds its way into biotite and fluorite, or why radiation damage haloes in these minerals are common in areas of known uranium enrichment, but rare where uranium abundance is low.
Since this granite is the basement rock, forming a thick layer, with the continents of the world above it and the basalt and magma below it, all this continental foundation had to be formed solid in less than three minutes time. With the fact in mind, there is little reason to expect the magma below and the continents above to have been formed in million years, if the granite between them was formed in less than three minutes.
Is it possible that this proves God created the earth in an instant?
There are still lots of questions to be answered?
Dr. Nitish Priyadarshi
Chaudhuri, N.K. and Iyer, R.H. 1980. Origins of unusual radioactive haloes, Radiation Effects, v.53,p.1-6.
Feather, N. 1978, the unsolved problem of Po halos in Precambrian biotite and other old minerals. Communication to Royal Society of Edinburgh, v.11, p. 147-148.
Gentry, R.V. 1970. Giant Radioactive Halos: Indicators of Unknown Radioactivity”. Science, V. 169,pp. 670-673.
Gentry, R.V. 1974. Radio halos in a radiochronological and cosmological perspective. Science, v. 184, p.62-66.
Gentry, R.V. 1992. Creation’s Tiny Mystery. Earth Science Associates, Knowville, TN, 3rd Edition.
Gentry, R. V. A. Rev. Nucl. sci. 23, 347 (1973); Nature 244, 282 (1973); 252, 564 (1974).
Snelling, A. A., 2000. Polonium radiohaloes: Still "a very tiny mystery". Impact 326 (Aug.), i-iv.
Wednesday, January 9, 2008
DR. NITISH PRIYADARSHI
Climate change is neither new nor unusual. The earth’s average surface temperature and climate have been changing through out the world’s 4.7 billion history. Sometimes it has changed gradually (over hundreds to millions of years) and at other times fairly quickly (over a few decades).
The last two million years has seen more climate changes than any other time in the earth’s history. This period is known as the Quaternary period. More than nine separate cold and warm spells occurred in the Quaternary period.
Scientists have found that the earth’s temperature increased by up to 0.6º C. (1º F) during the 20th Century. They believe that one of the main cause of this global warming is the increase in green house gases in the atmosphere. They estimate that if the amount of green house gases continues to increase, the earth’s temperature will continue to rise too, perhaps up to 3.5º c. (6.3º F) over coming decades. Major cause of the green house gases are the burning fossil fuels and deforestation.
During the day, green plants absorb carbon dioxide in the air to make food. According to reports plants remove about 60 billion tones of carbon from the atmosphere each year.
Reports say ‘to minimize’ carbon from the atmosphere grow more tree. Surprisingly recent findings reveal that plant produce methane gas which is also the important green house gas responsible for global warming. Much more carbon dioxide is spread into the atmosphere every year, but one kilogram of methane warms the earth 23 times more than a kilogram of carbon dioxide does.
Most people know methane as natural gas. Found in oil fields and coal beds as well as in natural gas fields, it has become an important source of energy. Approximately 600 million metric tons of it- both anthropogenic and natural- rise into the atmosphere every year. Most of these emissions have been thought to come from the decay of non fossil organic material as result of activity by anaerobic bacteria. Wetlands such as swamps, marshes and rice paddies provide the greatest share. It was discovered that aging plants provide most of the chloromethane found in the atmosphere. Chloromethane is a chlorinated gas that destroys ozone.
It was also found that the rates of methane production increased dramatically, jumping to 10 to 100 times those of leaves detached from plants. In 2005 the scientists satellite measurements revealed “clouds” of methane over tropical forests.
During the last glacial maximum-around 21,000 years ago- the plant growth of the Amazon forests was only half as extensive as today, and tropical vegetation might thus have released much less than methane. Since that time, global surface temperature and carbon dioxide concentrations have risen, leading to enhanced plant growth and, we would expect, to more and more methane released from vegetation.
How might increased carbon dioxide levels affect photosynthesis?
Some studies suggest that more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere could increase the rate of photosynthesis in areas with adequate amounts of water and other soil nutrients. This would remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and help slow atmospheric warming.
However, recent studies cast doubt on such a generalization for these reasons. First, this effect would slow as the plant reach maturity and take up less carbon dioxide. Second, it is a temporary effect. When the plants die and are decomposed or burned, the carbon they stored is returned to the atmosphere.
Seeing the above studies it can be said that plants are not going to help much in fighting global warming. The way we are producing carbons in the atmosphere I don’t think the growing trees can absorb so much of carbons, on the other hand they may take part in increasing global warming.
· G. Tyler Miller, Jr. 2004. Environmental Science working with the earth. Thomson Asia Pte. Ltd. Singapore.
· F. Keppler, T., Rockmann, Feb.2007. Methane, Plants and Climate Change. Scientific American, India Jour.
Dr. Nitish Priyadarshi
Saturday, January 5, 2008
समय पहले विश्व की प्रमुख विज्ञान पत्रिका 'नेचर' में एक शोध पत्र छपा था कि पृथ्वी को बनने में तीन मिनट से भी कम समय लगा । शोधकर्ता थे आर वी जेन्त्री। यह रिपोर्ट आने के बाद विश्व के खोजकर्ताओं में बहस चल रही है कि इस शोध पर कितना विश्वास किया जाए ।
जेन्त्री ने granite पत्थर में मौजूद radioactive पदार्थ पोलोनियम -२१८ को लेकर शोध किया । उनका कहना है कि पोलोनियम-२१८ कि आधी आयु (Half life) महज तीन मिनट है । दूसरे शब्दों में कहें तो यह धातु कुछ ही मिनट तक विकिरण दे सकता है । अपने कम होने के दोरान यह अल्फ़ा विकिरण देता है जो बगल मे मौजूद धातु को प्रभावित करता है । धातु के चारो तरफ एक ring बन जाता है जिसको हम 'हेलोस' (प्रभामंडल) कहते हैं । उनका यह मानना है कि अगर इन छल्लो को चट्टानों मैं मौजूद रहना है तो चट्टानों को तरल से ठोस होने में तीन मिनट से भी कम समय लगना होगा नहीं तो सारे पोलोनियम-२१८ विलुप्त हो जायंगे तथा छल्लों का प्रभाव नहीं दिखेगा। अगर हम पोलोनियम-२१४ कि बात करे तो उसकी आयु महज .०००१६४ सेकंड है। अगर इनके द्वारा बनाए गए छल्ले हम चट्टानों में देखते हैं तो आप यह सहज यह अनुमान लगा सकते हैं कि चट्टानों को ठोस होने में कितना समय लगेगा । यानी एक सेकंड का हजार वां हिस्सा ।
उनका मानना है कि पोलोनियम अरबों कि संख्या में विश्व के granite चट्टानों में पाया जाता है तथा विश्व का आधा से ज्यादा हिस्सा इन चट्टानों का है। वे granite को ही धरती का मूल चट्टान मानते हैं.
कुछ भूवैज्ञानिकों का मानना है कि जेंत्री भोतिकी के जानकर हैं। उनको भूविज्ञान के बारे में ज्यादा जानकारी नहीं है। पृथ्वी कि आयु जानने के लिये जरूरी है कि हमे चट्टानों के प्रकृति कि गहन जानकारी होनी चाहिऐ। उन्होने सिर्फ एक चीज को देखकर निष्कर्ष निकाल लिया कि पृथ्वी तीन मिनट के अन्दर बनी।
Wednesday, January 2, 2008
12.28.07, 12:00 AM ET
FRIDAY, Dec. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Farm women who come in contact with some widely used pesticides may have an increased risk of developing allergic asthma, a new study suggests.
However, the risk of developing non-allergic asthma does not increase for women exposed to pesticides, according to the study authors.
"Women who apply pesticides on farms were 50 percent more likely to have allergic asthma, although this was not true for non-allergic asthma," said study author Jane Hoppin, a staff scientist with the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences in Research Triangle Park, N.C. "Also, women who grew up on farms were protected against allergic asthma and that protection was evident whether or not you applied pesticides."
The findings are published in the January issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.
According to the Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America, non-allergic asthma is caused by factors not related to allergies. But allergic asthma -- the most common form of asthma, affecting more than 50 percent of the 20 million asthma sufferers in the United States -- is characterized by symptoms that are triggered by an allergic reaction. Some typical triggers for allergic asthma include dust mites, pet dander, pollen and mold.
Experts already knew that growing up on a farm minimizes the risk of allergic disease, that pesticides have been associated with respiratory symptoms in farmers, and that farmers are at increased risk for respiratory diseases -- including asthma -- due to exposure to grains, animals, dust and other factors.
Little research, however, has delved into respiratory risk factors for farm women.
Hoppin and her colleagues examined data on 25,814 such women in North Carolina and in Iowa who are participating in the Agricultural Health Study, a large government-funded look at the effects of environmental, occupational and other factors on the health of the agricultural population.
"This is the largest study of farmers and their families in the world, so it gives us an opportunity to look at diseases that haven't been well characterized," Hoppin said.
The women reported whether or not they had been diagnosed with asthma and were then divided into two groups: those with atopic (allergic) asthma and those with nonatopic (non-allergic) asthma.
More than half the women in the study had used or been exposed to pesticides. Sixty-one percent of the women were raised on a farm, which protected against allergic asthma and, to a lesser extent, non-allergic asthma. Using pesticides was associated almost solely with allergic asthma, increasing the risk almost 50 percent, the study found.
The association between pesticide use and allergic asthma was strongest among women who had grown up on a farm. But because of the protective effect of having grown up in an agricultural setting, these women still had a lower overall risk of allergic asthma than women who did not grow up on a farm.
Women who were raised on farms but did not use pesticides had the lowest overall risk of allergic asthma, compared with women who neither grew up on farms nor applied pesticides.
Some less commonly used pesticides such as parathion were associated with triple the risk of allergic asthma. Some more commonly used pesticides such as malathion were also associated with a higher risk, the researchers said.
Other experts said the study findings were far from clear-cut.
"It's a little bit confusing," said Dr. Len Horovitz, a pulmonary specialist at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City. "I would expect that there would be more allergic asthma in anybody who grew up on a farm, but that's not exactly what they're saying. Also, it's difficult to separate farm work from pesticide use. I would need to see more data before coming to the same conclusions as the authors of the article did."
Because Hoppin's analysis was "cross-sectional," it can't show a cause and effect. "But given what we see in animals, it suggests that we should do a prospective analysis where we can then say pesticide use preceded asthma or asthmatic symptoms. That's really the next step," she said.
Hoppin said she and her colleagues are in the process of planning that next study.
There is no longer any serious doubt that health officials are covering up a big story, trying to side step a growing swell of evidence that threatens the very foundation of medical science and practice. It is obvious that the medical profession cannot afford to have the public ever find out the truth about vaccination for there is simply just too much at stake for them. - Dr Mark Sircus, MD.
Tuesday, January 1, 2008
Underground mine fire engulfing Jharia town.
DR. NITISH PRIYADARSHI
The haunting inscription that marks the gates of hell in Dante’s Inferno could well be true for Jharia, located in Jharkhand in India. For, the underground fires that have been raging in the coalfields of this town over several decades are now beginning to engulf its thickly inhabited areas as well.
Panic gripped Sudamdih new mines area under eastern Jharia on 28th December , 2007 morning when large cracks developed on the road and buildings spread over an area of nearly half km. due to the land subsidence. While major cracks developed in almost all the rooms of Birsa Memorial High School, minor cracks were seen on walls of many houses of mini slum area situated by the side.
According to eyewitness, the residents of the locality heard some gurgling sound from beneath the earth at around 9.30 in the morning and cracks started developing on the earth surface. Fearing major land subsidence, residents came out of their houses and started running helter-skelter.
In October 2007, the area had experienced gas leakage from beneath the earth after which the coal organization management dug many holes to control the underground fire by stowing water mixed sand through the holes. It is all due to underground mine fire which is now slowly engulfing the area. Fire errupted on 19/1/2008
Few years ago the town’s temple snapped into two. The next moment, flames leapt out from underneath spewing noxious gases. The people of Jharia then realized that the underground fire had finally reached their doorstep.
Some 150,000 miners, truck drivers, loaders and other workers brave this hazard to eke out a living. The fires have consumed about 42 million tones of India’s best coking coal.
There appears to be no permanent solution in sight. The only opinion seems to be cut out trenches to disconnect fire seams which have been identified. But this would require a huge investment. But the extent to which has flared up in Jharia makes dousing it an uphill task-particularly when all the prevailing conditions further fan the fire.
The only solution which is now seen is the “shifting of town”. This means that the relocation would affect the nearly 0.3 million population of Jharia, approximately 0.1 million houses and other buildings and prospering economy.
About Study Area:
Coal fires are a natural occurrence and as widespread as forest fires. Besides the blaze in India’s Jharia town, the coal fire of Indonesia is regarded as the wildest on the earth.
An organic and highly carbonaceous material, coal-when exposed to moisture and oxygen- tends to catch fire immediately. Coal absorbs oxygen at all temperatures with slight rise in temperature. If ventilation is not adequate to take away the heat thus formed, more oxygen will be absorbed, and more will be the rise in temperature. This process continues till it catches fire. Reaction rate is doubled for every 10 degree rise in temperature. This phenomenon of spontaneous combustion is the main natural cause of coal fires. Lightning, forest fires or frictional heat generated during churning inside the Earth’s crust can also ignite coal fires. Regarding Jharia research says that no single reason can be attributed to the fire. Jharia coal is not very prone to auto-oxidation.
How to minimize fire:
Fire-fighting techniques include drilling holes and pumping inert gases or foams that stifle flames, burying the fire to deprive it of oxygen, building walls to isolate burning sections, saturating coal with liquid nitrogen, and dousing coal with water or water and soil slurries. Slurry water usually with sand, fly ash, mud is used for decreasing voids and cracks in the fire area. Water solid ratio 10:1 works well. A mixture of cement and milk of lime or CaCl2 or sodium silicate with water under pressure are becoming popular. Flooding the mine with water is the last resort in fighting fire. It is slow and very costly to repair damage it causes. When all direct methods fail, the fire area is to be sealed off. Stopping should be as close to the fire as possible and they should be leak proof. Where methane evolves the seals should not be too close to fire but 100-300 m. away so an explosive mixture is not formed.
· Down to Earth Nov.2002. Jharia fires: a burning issue. Vol.11, no.13.
· Underground mine fire and explosions. 1995. CMPDI Ltd. Ranchi.
Dr. Nitish Priyadarshi