Sunday, April 27, 2008
क्या प्राचीन मनुष्य ने भी की थी अंतरिक्ष की सैर ।
हाल मे रूस की समाचार संस्थान 'प्राव्दा ' ने एक बयां जरी कर सनसनी फेल दी की जब अमेरिका का यान अंतरिक्ष यात्रियों को लेकर पहली बार जब चंद्रमा के सतह पर उतरा तो वहाँ पर पहेले से कोई मोजूद था । यहीं नहीं उन लोगों ने (एलिएंस) अमेरिकी अंतरिक्ष यात्रियों को वापस जाने का इशारा किया। अब सवाल यह उठता की क्या चन्द्रमा पर या अंतरिक्ष मे जाने वाले यात्रियों में आधुनिक मानव ही प्रथम थे या उनसे पहले भी लोग वहाँ जो चुके हैं, चाहे इस पृथ्वी से या दुसरे ग्रहों से।
आज विश्व के कई प्राचीनतम लेखों में अंतरिक्ष यात्राओं का विस्तार से वर्णन मिलता हैं। वैसे आधुनिक विज्ञान इनकी सत्यता पर प्रश्नचिह्न लगता है । लेकिन जिस तरीके से इनका वर्णन किया गया हैं उससे तो लगता हैं इन लेखों पर विश्वास न करने का कोई कारन नहीं हैं।
आज से कई वर्ष पहले जब लोग मानवनिर्मित सॅटॅलाइट तथा अंतरिक्ष यान के बारे मे बात भी नहीं करते थे उस वक्त अंग्रेज विद्वान जेम्स चर्च्वार्ड ने इन यानों का जिक्र अपने लेख में किया।
विश्व के विभिन्न प्राचीन ग्रंथों में अंतरिक्ष विमान एवं यात्रा का वर्णन काफी विस्तार से मिलता हैं।
तिब्बत के सुदूर उत्तर में सिंग नु की राजधानी के अवशेष की खोज सन १७२५ में की गई थी। इन अवशेषों में एक पिरामिड, एक शाही महल तथा एक सिंहासन जिसपर चन्द्रमा एवं सूर्य के चित्र के अलावा एक दूधिया रंग का पत्थर भी पाया गया।
१९५२ मैं सोविअत खोजी दल को वहाँ से एक प्राचीन दास्तावेज मिला जिसमे इस दूधिया पत्थर को चन्द्रमा से लाया गया दिखाया गया है।
क्या प्राचीन कल में वास्तव में मनुष्य चन्द्रमा पर गया था? क्या उस वक्त के लोग अंतरिक्ष में आसानी से जा सकते थे।
भारत के प्राचीन 'सूर्य सिद्धांत' में इस बात का रोचक वर्णन मिलता है की उस वक्त के दार्शनिक तथा वैज्ञानिक चन्द्रमा के नीचे एवं बादलों के ऊपर पृथ्वी के चारों ओर भ्रमण करते थे।
भारत के प्राचीन संस्कृत लेखों में ऐसे वाहनों का वर्णन मिलता है जो पृथ्वी के चारों ओर घूमते हैं। ये हवा से अपने इंधन का इंतजाम कर लेते थे। ये पृथ्वी का उस वक्त तक चक्कर लगाते जब तक कोई गतिरोध न हो।
सुमेर सभ्यता की चित्र लिपि में भी एक खास तरह की वस्तु का वर्णन मिलता है जो रॉकेट की तरह लगता है।
दक्षिण अमेरिका के पेरू में चीनी मिट्टी का बना हुआ एक खास तरह का यान मिला है जो एक अंतरिक्ष कैप्सूल की तरह दिखता है।
उसी तरह जापान में कुछ ऐसे चित्रों की खोज हुई है जिसमे लोगों को अंतरिक्ष के वस्त्र पहने हुए दिखाए गये है तथा उन्हें ऐसे हेलमेट में दिखाया गया है जो उनके पूरे सिर को ढँक लेता है।
ग्वाटेमाला देश के प्राचीन लेख में एक ऐसे सुनहरे रथ का वर्णन मिलता है जो तारों तक पहुँच सकता है।
ग्रीस के लुसियाना चित्र में चन्द्रमा को पृथ्वी की तरह बताया गया है तथा इस बात का भी वर्णन है की चन्द्रमा पर पहुँचने में आठ दिन लगते हैं ।
इसी तरह तिब्बत एवं मंगोल के बौद्ध किताबों में ऐसे मशीनों का जिक्र हुआ है जो तारों तक जा सकता है।
महाभारत में ऐसे रथ का विवरण मिलता है जो दो तल्ले का है तथा यह आग के शोले के साथ आकाश की तरफ़ बढ़ जाता है तथा दूर होने पर धूमकेतु की तरह दिखता है।
आज विज्ञान इन तथ्यों को माने या न माने किंतु इतना जरुर है की प्राचीन सभ्यता के लोग अंतरिक्ष एवं चन्द्रमा के बारे में विशेष जानकारी रखते थे।
डॉक्टर नीतिश प्रियदर्शी
Friday, April 25, 2008
Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-size mineral or rock grains. Most sandstone is composed of quartz and/or feldspar because these are the most common minerals in the Earth's crust. Like sand, sandstone may be any color, but the most common colors are tan, brown, yellow, red, gray and white.
Some sandstones are resistant to weathering, yet are easy to work. This makes sandstone a common building and paving material. Because of the hardness of the individual grains, uniformity of grain size and friability of its structure, sandstone is an excellent building material. . In most sandstone used for building, quartz grains predominate.
Sandstone also has a long history in the building industry. The stone generally has a uniform texture and it is somewhat soft, making it a user-friendly stone for a variety of applications. It is favored for wall claddings because of its low absorption rate, high compression strength and aesthetically pleasing appearance. Its appearance and high durability make it ideal for flooring as well. With a variety of colors and finishes, it is also easy to match it to nearly any décor.
Massive sandstones consisting of closely interlocking and angular grains and free from structural defects was found best for building purposes. Most of the sandstones used in the buildings may have been supplied from Vindhyan System. The Vindhyan sandstones are fine grained in texture and available in abundance in a variety of colours like white, cream, and deep red and grey etc.
Vindhyan sandstones are regularly quarried in area very near to Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh.
The rock's formation occurs in two phases: The first is sedimentation, where layers of sand accumulate via water or air; the second is compaction, which occurs when pressure is exerted from overlaying materials and precipitation within the pore spaces between the sand grains. Sandstone is formed in layers and, over time, the layers become compacted until the bottom layers slowly turn into rock.
The stone is a common paving material because it can be highly weather resistant. Due to such quality these stone was used in mass scale in constructing stairs near the banks of the holy river. As a paver, sandstone is prized for its ability to maintain age and appearance over time, as well as for the different dimensions available. Sandstone pavers can be used for patios, pool surrounds, pool coping, balconies, as well as cladding and veneer.
The color of sandstone is extremely varied and depends on the quantity and color of the cementations materials present and the overall color of the mineral grains. Sandstone spans the full spectrum of colors, ranging from sandy yellows to deep golds, pale pinks and light greens.
Light colors generally result from the absence of cementitious materials, or joined by calcite or quartz. Buff, brown and red colors result from the presence of limestone and hematite. Greensand, a type of green sandstone, results from the presence of glauconite.
Dr. Nitish Priyadarshi
Monday, April 21, 2008
Bats migrated from other parts of the country in search of food.
Dr. Nitish Priyadarshi
A large number of flying bats have migrated from different parts of the state of Jharkhand and neighbouring states in a play ground in Ranchi city, the capital of Jharkhand state.
According to the different experts they have migrated in search of food. They have made their home in number of eucalyptus trees planted in the ground. Peculiar thing is that they are seen flying in day time in scorching heat and burning sun. In nature most bats are active at night or at twilight and not in bright day light. Bats find shelter in caves, crevices, tree cavities and buildings. Here in Ranchi they are found hanging from the branches. It is not only the incident of Ranchi, bats are also seen in very good amount in small towns near Ranchi. . But to me it is not natural. Such huge amount of migration only happens when their natural habitat has been disturbed.
According to rough estimate, the population of bats which are dwelling in the Eucalyptus trees could be more 500.
Government forest official claims that there is a tremendous increase in the bats population due to its protection from the hunters. He added that the forest department has controlled hunting of bats by local people which was rampant earlier.
Seeing bat flying during day time around the trees was never seen before. Even the bats were never seen earlier in the area mentioned.
According to different local experts bats have migrated from different parts of the country to eat up fruits of the Eucalyptus trees. But if we move around Ranchi city bats are also seen on other varieties of dense trees.
Bats are natural reservoirs or vectors for a large number of zoonotic pathogens including rabies severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Henipavirus (ie. Nipah virus and Hendra virus) and possibly ebola virus Their high mobility, broad distribution, social behaviour (communal roosting, fission-fusion social structure) and close evolutionary relationship to humans make bats favourable hosts and disseminators of disease.
Most people in Ranchi reported about the bats flying inside their houses. This poses great danger to the people inside the house. If a bat is found in living quarters near a child, mentally handicapped person, intoxicated person, sleeping person, or pet, the person or pet should receive immediate medical attention for rabies. Bats have very small teeth and can bite a sleeping person without necessarily being felt. There is evidence that it is possible for the bat rabies virus to infect victims purely through airborne transmission, without direct physical contact of the victim with the bat itself.
If a bat is found in a house and the possibility of exposure cannot be ruled out, the bat should be sequestered. This also applies if the bat is found dead. If it is certain that nobody has been exposed to the bat, it should be removed from the house. The best way to do this is to close all the doors and windows to the room except one to the outside. The bat should soon leave.
3. Anupam Rana, The Pioneer news paper, Ranchi, 15th April 2008.
Tuesday, April 8, 2008
Fig.1 Sufficient amount of water present in coal mines of NK Area of Jharkhand.
Fig.2 Other mine flooded with water
Fig.3 Satellite photo showing mine water in North Karanpura Coalfield of Jharkhand State.
Fig.4 Water in stone mine near Ranchi city.
Nature has been issuing warning signals like steep decline in water table, stoppage of base flow in streams and drying up of a large number of open wells and drilled bore wells.
In Jharkhand water underground few years ago had remained a precious resource to be tapped in times of need when all other sources of water had failed. This is no longer the case. The reckless way in which the people of Jharkhand are drilling more and more number of wells, drill deeper and deeper into the ground and withdraw water without exercising any restraint for domestic and commercial buildings and flats, shows gross abuse. Great damage has already been caused and any further abuse of this resource will result in water crisis.
Formerly the drinking water requirement of Jharkhand State was met by the construction of tanks, ponds and wells by the people themselves who also take care to keep these structures in good repair.
Tanks, ponds have been allowed to fill with silt and remain almost dry during the summer season and with no source of recharge, well become dry just after the winter season. You can easily imagine the situation in the peak summer season. Drying trend starts from February itself. Land in many parts are become bare due to depletion of ground water.
In the type of meteorological conditions prevailing in Jharkhand where rainfall is restricted to about three to four months in a year. Major dams are not capable of storing more than 10 to 20 % of the rain water that falls in their catchment area because of the filling up of silt and clay from last several years which has gradually shallowed the dams. The annual rainfall of Jharkhand is 1200 mm.
Taking note of the pattern of rainfall and geology of the state, water conservation through numerous large and small ponds is a much better alternative for storing rain water.
Idea is that catch rain water where it falls, store it and make use of it for your needs.
The State of Jharkhand, although claims to be a store house of minerals of India, is not so reach in water resources. Most of the area is occupied by the hard rock, which is in general protracted drought prone areas.
During my research in the coal fields regarding trace elements in coals, I saw many abandoned open coal mines filled with mine/rain water. All the mine waters are discharged into the near by Damodar river and its tributaries or left useless. All the communities especially tribal people are dependent on the most contaminated Damodar river water for drinking and other uses during peak summer season. Even the Damodar river get dry up during the summer season. Ground water levels are fairly deep, therefore scant availability. According to the reports millions of gallons of water have apparently flooded abandoned underground as well as open coal mines in the area while the coal filed is generally short of water.
Same situation I have seen around Ranchi city where there are sufficient numbers of abandoned stone mining filled with rain water and the local people use it for washing clothes and bathing. If proper management can be implemented like water quality monitoring and installing small filter plant around such mines at least local communities can be supplied with safe drinking water.
Regarding coal mines water, water can be used for both drinking and for irrigation. Especially during summer season, where every summer is a nightmare. Heat, coal dust and shortage of water create an unbearable cocktail in summer, when people in the coal field have to often walk several kilometers for a bucket of water, stand in long queues and occasionally fight with others for a just share of the water.
Only problem is the presence of suspended solids and heavy metals in the water. Water of the mines are not acidic as found in my research work. Heavy metals which were found in mine water in the north Karanpura coal field are arsenic, iron, zinc, manganese and fluoride. Among these arsenic was present in very trace amount. Problem is with manganese and fluoride which are in bit higher range.
It can also be used as the potential to serve as cooling water sources for electric power plants. Mine pool water will have to be treated to some degree, prior to use in a power plant’s cooling.
To me these metals can be minimized by primary and secondary treatment. When compared to Damodar river, these mine waters are more safe to consume after treatment.
Treatment technologies for pH adjustment, removal of TDS, dissolved metal ions, and variables found in mine water are well established.
An example of a treatment system that might be used for the treatment of mine water includes the following process units.
• Clarification to remove settleable solids
• Horizontal precipitator, coagulation, and flocculation for metals removal
• Multimedia filtration, ion exchange, and carbon adsorption if necessary to remove low
In a 1998 report, the Central Pollution Control Board of India classified the river as ‘D’, or heavily polluted. It means the water can only support some hardy variety of fishes, it cannot be used drinking or bathing. Damodar and its tributaries resemble large drain carrying black, highly turbid water. The total suspended solid (TSS) count at most places along the upper and middle stretches of the river is 40-50 times higher than the permissible limit.
In areas like Dhanbad, Giridih, Bokaro, Hazaribagh and Chatra, there is a tremendous requirement of water on the ground but perennial sources like river are very few and groundwater levels are fairly deep, therefore, scant availability. But water in the abandoned mines are within easy reach and can be turned to our advantage.
Regarding granite stone mines, there are many abandoned mines in Ranchi, Pankur, Palamau, Singhbhum districts etc. Rain water can harvested in such open mines. As compared to coal mine water, stone mine water are less polluted. It can fulfill the demand of local community. Joints and fractures present in granite mines can also help in recharging groundwater of the area.
There is no other way. ‘Catch Water Where it Falls’ should be the slogan. There is no need to go in search of water. It is there when you want it. Develop the ingenuity and skill to catch it, store it and make use of it wisely without wasting a single drop.
Dr. Nitish Priyadarshi