Wednesday, October 29, 2008

Growing Sunflower in Jadugoda of Jharkhand State, India can minimize radioactive pollution.



Growing Sunflower in Jadugoda of Jharkhand State, India can minimize radioactive pollution.
by
Dr. Nitish Priyadarshi
Exposure to nuclear radiation is affecting the health of miners and villagers at Jadugoda in Singhbhum district in Jharkhand State located in Eastern India, which is India’s first uranium mining. Jadugoda, literally meaning "magic land", intrigues an outsider. The promise of magic enthralls; the mystery of the unknown attracts. But closeness reveals not innocence but an intention, dangerous and deliberate. According to different N.G.Os working among the tribal peoples of Singhbhum said the radiation may not bring sudden dramatic illness but slowly undermines the health of the people living in the surrounding villages.
The diseases include blood in cough, ulcer, swelling of bone joints, asthma, eye problems, etc.The people in the Jadugoda area are affected not only by radiation from tailing dams but also by lack of safety at the mines. Fatigue, lack of appetite, respiratory ailments are wide spread. Increases in miscarriages, impotency, infant mortality, Down’s syndrome, skeletal deformities and different skin diseases, children with big heads, thalassemia have been reported.

The contamination of soil and ground water with radionuclides poses a serious problem in areas affected by the precipitation and use of nuclear materials such as uranium, tritium, cesium, strontium, technetium and plutonium.

A need for a cost effective and environmentally safe procedure to reclaim such lands have become a main priority. Large efforts have been conducted to reclaim contaminated lands. In recent years use of plants to remove radionuclides from the soils and the water (Phytoremediation) are gaining importance.

Phytoremediation is the use of certain plants to withdrawal chemicals, compounds, and heavy metals from the soil. Knowledge of these plants, and specifically their biology, has allowed for innovative techniques to reclaim contaminated soil sites. Not all plants have the same capability to withdrawal such things as nickel, lead, cadmium, and arsenic. However, some plants can tolerate high levels of heavy metals and other toxic chemicals. These plants are referred to as hyper accumulators. The best plants used in phytoremediation are those plants that have hay crop characteristics that are tall, high yielding, fast growing, and easy to harvest.

Not only do these plants uptake the unwanted material, but such plants also limit the movement of materials within the soil, and in some cases those materials can then be extracted from the plant and reused.

With the help of plants, scientists have been able to start reclaiming the soil and water surrounding Chernobyl Russia. Scientists have found that sunflowers can remove radionuclides from the soil as well as water, when grown hydroponically. These sunflowers can reduce the amount of uranium concentrations in the water by up to 95%. The sunflowers are then harvested and the radioactive material within the plant is disposed of properly.

The tests used sunflower plants to pull radionuclides from a pond contaminated by the 1986 Chernobyl accident. According to scientists, these tests demonstrate that rhizofiltration is a practical way to treat radionuclides, including uranium, cesium, and strontium found in groundwanter.
The roots of the Sunflower cultivar (Helianthus annuus L.), when submerged in water, quickly accumulate heavy metals and radionuclides.

In Jadugoda where the peoples are most affected with radiation, growing Sunflower can be seen as one of the important methods to minimize toxic metals from the water and soil.
To grow well, sunflowers need full sun. Jharkhand State receives sufficient sun rays through out the year. Seeing the favourable climatic conditions, local people and NGOs must be motivated to go for sunflower plantation in the affected areas.

We have become too set on thinking that man can do things better than nature itself. Phytoremediation proves us wrong. We have relied on our technologies and our manmade devices too much. We have become so use to this way of thinking that we have ignored some vital nature processes. Once we understand these processes and what they entail we weave ourselves more tightly into the web of life, and thus become closer to living in harmony with nature.

Tuesday, October 28, 2008

Ranchi is celebrating Diwali

Ranchi sky is covered with smoke of the crackers. Stars are not visible.






















video

Monday, October 27, 2008

Ranchi getting ready for Diwali.

Ranchi the capital city of Jharkhand State of India is preparing for Diwali festival which going to be celebrated on 28th of October. People are purchasing sweets, crackers, toys made of soils painted with different colours etc. In the picture below a women is found selling oil made by the extracts of plants. This oil will be used to burn lights with the help of earthy pots (diya). Such oils (Karanj oil) are the best examples of bio-fuel used in the State of Jharkhand from the ancient days. Buildings are also being decorated with lights instead of traditional methods of burning lights in the pots made of soils.

My son preparing to burn crackers in the night today on the eve of Diwali Festival


Buildings are getting decorated for Diwali
The colourful sweets being sold in the local market. These sweets are found only in Diwali


























All photographs by Nitish Priyadarshi

Thursday, October 23, 2008

Diamonds are also found as placers deposit.

Diamonds are also found as placers deposit.
by
Dr. Nitish Priyadarshi
Diamond, a gem amongst gems the crystallized carbon and the hardest mineral known is a rare gift from mother earth to humanity. With admantine luster and twinkling habit it fascinated men and women from time immemorial. To win diamonds temples have been profaned, palaces looted, thrones torn to fragments, princes tortured, women strangled, guests poisoned and slaves disemboweled. No strain of fancy in an Arabian Tale has outstripped the marvels of fact in the diamond’s history. So wrote Garner Williams, the General Manager of the renowned Diamond Company De Beers in 1890.

Pliny (A.D.100) described diamond as the king of the stones known only to the kings and to them superficially only as decorative objects. Now diamonds can be possessed by those who are not necessarily kings. It is estimated that about three hundred million women own at least a piece of diamond as jewellery today. Wannenburgh in the year 1990 in his book diamond people, mentioned that each year, men and women spend almost forty billion dollars on about sixty million pieces containing some fifteen million carats of diamonds.

Diamonds occurs in nature in (1) primary form in igneous rocks like kimberlite, lamproites (2) secondary in conglomerates, grits and similar sedimentary rocks, (3) in Quaternary to Recent placers and (4) extra-terrestrial, as in meteorites. Of these different sources most of the diamonds in the world are recovered from the first and the third type.
Minerals which are more abundant than diamond and act as pathfinders to locate diamondiferous source rocks are considered as indicator minerals in exploration for diamonds. These are formed along with diamond in the upper mantle and brought up to the surface as xenocrysts in the kimberlite and lamproite magma. Indicator minerals useful in diamond exploration are pyrope garnet, picro- ilmenite, chrome-diopside, chromite, spinel and micro diamond.
Diamonds as placers deposit:
In geology, a placer deposit or placer is an accumulation of valuable minerals formed by deposition of dense mineral phases in a trap site Placer mining. (pronounced "plass-er") refers to the mining of alluvial deposits for minerals. This may be done by open-pit (also called open-cast mining) or by various forms of tunneling into ancient riverbeds. Excavation may be accomplished using water pressure (hydraulic mining), surface excavating equipment or tunneling equipment.
The name derives from Spanish, placera, meaning "alluvial sand." It refers to mining the precious metal deposits (particularly diamonds, gold and gemstones) found in alluvial deposits—deposits of sand and gravel in modern or ancient stream beds.
The simplest technique to extract diamond or gold from placer ore is panning. In panning, some mined ore is placed in a large metal or plastic pan, combined with a generous amount of water, and agitated so that the gold particles, being of higher density than the other material, settle to the bottom of the pan. The lighter gangue material such as sand, mud and gravel are then washed over the side of the pan, leaving the precious stones behind.

Fig. Aeolian diamond placers of Namibian desert in Africa

The disintegration of primary rock due to weathering, transportation and deposition along with valuable minerals like diamond, gold, tin ore etc., give rise to placers. If the placers are very close to the source, they are known as “eluvial placers”. If shifted down the hill or slope they get grouped as “deluvial placers”. If the material gets accumulated at the foot of the hill due to gravity action it is called “colluvial placers”. The material transported by water, streams and rivers for longer distance deposited away from the source is called “alluvial placers”. Deposition along the shores of the sea results in “beach placers” and in deserts when deposition takes place by wind it is called “aeolian placers”.
The secondary deposits are formed by the weathering of the kimberlite and the lamproite. The diamonds are released from the rock and then, they are transported hundreds of kilometres away to be found in river beds, beach sands, old river beds (sometime found on top of hills deep jungle forest, deserts, etc... Diamonds may also have been transported by glaciers and if the journey has been hard, rough and long, they are not to be found as they have been broken and grinded into near dust.
There is no single, universally applicable method of target selection for alluvial diamond deposits. Climatic and geomorphic history, stratigraphy, structure and tectonic history are important factors that require study and need to be understood for each alluvial diamond province prior to target selection. What is appropriate in one part of the world may be entirely inappropriate in another, but there are some basic principles which must be followed in planning and executing any alluvial diamond exploration program.
Before starting field exploration, it is important to have a comprehensive knowledge of (i) the regional geology of the drainage basin under revue; (ii) the constituent lithologies of the gravel being prospected for; (iii) the geomorphic and climatic factors which have affected the exploration area; (iv) the type of deposit to be sought; and (v) any post-depositional processes which may have affected the alluvial deposits being considered for exploration.

World diamond occurrences were found in first in placer deposits which later led to the discovery of many primary kimberlite source rocks. Understanding the mechanism of formation of placers will help in locating areas of concentration of diamond in placers deposits.
Historically diamonds were known to be found only in alluvial deposits in southern India. India led the world in diamond production from the time of their discovery in approximately the 9th century BCE to the mid-18th century AD, but the commercial potential of these sources had been exhausted by the late 18th century and at that time India was eclipsed by Brazil where the first non-Indian diamonds were found in 1725.

Diamondiferous residual rubble and clay found on the mainland of Tanzania developed over weathered kimberlite pipe is a typical example of eluvial placer deposit. Diamondiferous placer of Namibian desert in Africa is a classic example of aeolian placer.
Precambrian diamond bearing conglomerate of Diamantina in Brazil, diamondiferous moraines of Michigan and Wisconsin in United States of America are example of glacial placers.
The diamantiferous gravels of the Belgian Congo, which yield about two-thirds of the world production, are former stream gravels, and the diamonds probably came originally from weathered kimberlite pipes, several of which are known within the Congo. Some diamonds also occur in the Lulua, Zambesi, and other basins.
The Orange River forms a geographic dividing-line between the nations of South Africa and Namibia. For the last hundred million years, the Orange has been carrying eroded diamondiferous kimberlite material from its source on the Kaapvaal Craton, in central South Africa and Botswana.
Diamond-bearing material was deposited in river bank gravels and alluvium as it traveled westward towards the Atlantic Ocean. Other diamondiferous material was re-distributed by wind action, settling to form eluvial deposits in the desert. Material that completed the journey was deposited in beach terrace sediments, or redistributed by northerly ocean currents, to off-shore marine deposits on the sea floor.
These secondary alluvial land and marine deposits are Namibia's only source for diamonds, but the Orange River has left an enormous amount of diamondiferous material in the vast drainage basin stretching 150 miles from Oranjemund to Elizabeth Bay. As the sea-level receded, diamond-bearing sediments were exposed, and eventually covered by blowing sand. Land-based secondary deposits must be excavated from this sedimentary layer that lies beneath a deep layer of surface sand.
In Jharkhand state of India diamonds were reported in Chotanagpur area (ancient name Kokrah) in the Brahmani, Sankh and Koel river basins as mentioned in old records. Records show that near Simah in Palamau district in the Sankh River, near Rajadera (Rajadera is a saucer shaped village, is situated 19 km from Chainpur and about 26 km south of Netarhat) and in Sadni falls originating point of Sankh River, active diamond mines existed. These mines are stated to have yielded in the sixteenth and the seventeenth centuries many large and fine stones especially from Sankh River. Diamonds were washed from the sands and gravels of river Gouel. The river is probably North koel, a tributary of Son. On the banks of this river an ancient township Semah/Semelpur existed. According to the old reports about 8000 people are stated to have worked in these mines.
Raigarh in the upper reaches of Mahanadi river, west of Hirakud, Orissa in India, is also known to have been active in diamond mining since ancient times. Local tribals carry out small scale panning and recover diamonds from alluvial and colluvial placers.
Mr. T.K. Rau of Geological survey of India recovered micro-and macro diamonds from the heavy mineral concentrates of beach samples from the southern tip of India. The diamonds exhibit varied tints of which white, pink and yellow are prominent.

Reference:
· Babu, T.M. Diamonds in India. 1998. Geological Society of India, Bangalore, India.
· Bateman, A.M. 1955. Economic Mineral Deposits, John Wiley and Sons, New York.
· Rau, T.K., 2006. Incidence of diamonds in the beach sands of the Kanyakumari Coast, Tamil Nadu, Journal of the Geological Society of India, vol.67, no1, pp.11-16.
· http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diamonds#Mining.2C_sources_and_production
· http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Placer_deposit
· http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Placer_mining

Sunday, October 19, 2008

PROSPECTS OF COAL BED METHANE GAS IN JHARKHAND STATE OF INDIA.

PROSPECTS OF COAL BED METHANE GAS IN JHARKHAND STATE OF INDIA.

By
Dr. Nitish Priyadarshi


Coal contains methane gas as an inherent component but in widely variable proportions depending on the rank of coal and depth of occurrence. Its presence in coal has so far been considered a hazard as it is an inflammable and explosive gas and there have been many fire accidents in coal mines throughout the world due to this gas. In recent years, coal bed methane has become a good source of clean thermal energy for its easy inflammability and it has come up as an additional energy resource from the coal basins especially in the countries like USA, Australia and China.

Deep seated coal seams of comparatively high rank contain considerable volume of methane adsorbed on coal surfaces.

Unlike much natural gas from conventional reservoirs, coal bed methane contains very little heavier hydrocarbons such as propane or butane, and no natural gas condensate. It often contains up to a few percent carbon dioxide.
India is struggling to find enough energy sources to meet up the growing energy demand coupled with economic growth. Indian government is now exploring alternative sources too. Indian government has received 54 bids to extract coal-bed methane (CBM) from various domestic and foreign energy companies. This is the highest amount of bids the government has ever received. 18 domestic companies and 8 foreign companies have submitted their bids to extract methane from ten areas. It shows CBM has a good prospect in India.

At present, many foreign companies are setting up their plants in India. In addition, Indian companies are targeting the global market. This rapid industrialization has made India an energy hungry country. As the price of oil continues remain high in the international market, CBM can be a good source of energy for India in future. In fact, India is going to start commercial production of CBM from 2007. Some states of India contains good reserve of coal.

The prospect for coal bed methane is mainly related to the coal resources of the country. India has huge Gondwana (mainly Permian, 99.5%) and Tertiary (Eocene and Oligocene) coal deposits distributed in several basins located in peninsular and extra-peninsular regions. About 204 billion tons of coal reserves have been established and approximately 200 million tons or so are likely to be added in the near future by further explorations.

CBM IN JHARKHAND:

In India prospects of Coal Bed Methane (CBM) is not very bright, as most of the Indian coals are of inferior quality and of low rank. However, some of the coal basins contain high rank coal where sizeable reserves of CBM may be expected. A recent assessment has identified certain areas of Gondwana coalfields where gas -in-place reserves of 564 billion cubic meters have been indicated.

In 1990, efforts to exploit coal bed methane were initiated by Essar Oil (a private oil company) under the advice of American experts. The methane emission and desorption studies on Gondwana coal samples from Jharia Coalfield (Jharkhand) were carried out by Central Mine Planning and Design Institute Limited (Ranchi) and Central Mining Research Institute (Dhanbad). The content of gas and gas emission rate from these samples were found to be 1.8–2.3 m3/1000 m2 of surface and 12.7–17.3 m3/min, respectively. The studies carried out by Bharat Coking Coal Limited in the same area with the help of French experts indicated 0.68–1.45 m3/min gas emission rate.

In Jharkhand State areas identified for CBM are Jharia, East Bokaro, West Bokaro, North Karanpura and Rajmahal Basins.

The estimate reserves in Jharia coalfield is 4.82 trillion cubic feet, in East Bokaro it is 3.2 trillion cubic feet and West Bokaro it is 0.38 trillion cubic feet. Some of the new areas has also been identified like North Karanpura coalfield for the CBM which needs more survey.

Potential of CBM production in Jharia coalfield is 3.5 million cubic metres/day , East Bokaro has the potential of 2.5 million cubic metres /day, North Karanpura has the potential of 6.0 cubic metres /day and the Rajmahal Basin has the potential of 4.5 cubic metres/day.

Thick Tertiary coal of Makum area, Assam, and thick lignite seams of Tamil Nadu and Gujarat may also be positive areas for methane prospects. These factors need to be considered in future.

Reference:

Acharyya, S.K. Coal and Lignite Resources of India,2000, 41-43.
Biswas, S. K., Indian J. Petrol. Geol., 1995, 4, 1–23.
http://www.cmpdi.nic.in/cbm.htm
http://www.iisc.ernet.in/currsci/jun25/articles15.htm

http://envfor.nic.in/cpcb/newsletter/coal/cmetha.html

http://www.indianraj.com/2006/07/coalbed_methane_cbm_indias_fut.html

Thursday, October 9, 2008

Thunder and Lightning killing people in Jharkhand State of India.

Thunder and Lightning killing people in Jharkhand State of India.
by
Dr. Nitish Priyadarshi
Figure 1: Lightning clouds being built over Ranchi city.


Eight people died and two others were wounded by lightning in three districts of Jharkhand this week. Every week people are being killed by lightning in Jharkhand state of India. On 4th October A 12-year-old boy was killed and 25 others injured today when lightning struck at Islamnagar village in Jharkhand's Lohardagga district.
The lightning struck when the children were playing on the street at about 12 noon..The boy died on the spot, while the injured people, including 14 male and rest women and children, were admitted to Lohardagga Sadar Hospital.
On October 2 five people were killed and four others injured Friday evening when lightning struck a hut in which they had taken shelter in a Jharkhand village. The incident took place in Kambo village, about 40 km from Ranchi city.
According to the police, nine people took shelter in the hut with a roof made of paddy husk.The lightning struck the hut and five people died on the spot while four were injured.
This year till now more than 70 people have been killed hundreds injured. In the year 2007 more than 150 people died including 5 children of Ranchi city. This natural disaster is gradually increasing from last several years. The weather gods, it seems, have crushed Jharkhand. If heat stroke was not enough, then lightning has emerged as a big killer in the state.

While the state government is perturbed, people get mortally scared when discharged electricity. Unlike heat waves which is more severe during summer, lightning strikes have taken place at alarming regularity in almost all parts of the state.

Mainly high elevated places are prone to lightning in Jharkhand, such as isolated trees or tall buildings and, of course, lightning conductors. In Jharkhand people who shelter beneath trees during storm are often at severe risk of a lightning strike.

From six different types of lightning, Fork Lightning is very frequent in the state.

The plateau region of Jharkhand contains high amount of Iron stone in the rocks and soils. According to the recent studies lightning has been used as a naturally occurring instrument for studying the electrical nature of the ground. There have been numerous ancient observations based on these studies, however “few modern studies exist to indicate that soils of high conductivity (e.g. marshes) are lightning-prone; that ironstone outcrops attract lightning.

In Jharkhand forest areas are more prone to lightning. Trees are frequent conductors of lightning to the ground. Since sap is a poor conductor, its electrical resistance causes it to be heated explosively into steam, which blows off the bark outside the lightning's path.

From past several years the climate of Jharkhand has changed a lot from bad to worse. Ranchi which was earlier the summer capital of the Bihar and Jharkhand state united, is now under the impact of global warming or say regional warming. One of the major cause of global warming is carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Models have been developed that predict atmospheric increases in CO2. One such model predicts that a doubling of CO2could increase the amount of lightning occurrences by 30–77% .

The number of lightning deaths in the state has almost doubled in the past several years. Add to this the hundreds who sustain injuries and the loss of cattle and property annually. And, you would know why panic sets in when people in Jharkhand see the magnificent flashes with thundering sounds on the sky.

Thunder and lightning are probably the most obvious and dramatic features of common storms. Although there is still no clear agreement on how lightning is formed it is believed that it’s largely due to collisions between ice crystals.

As floods ,earthquakes, cyclone, drought, hailstorms, tsunami figure in the list of natural calamities in India, lightning should also be included in the list.

Wednesday, October 8, 2008

JHARKHAND STATE OF INDIA WAS THE LANKA OF RAMAYANA?

JHARKHAND STATE OF INDIA WAS THE LANKA OF RAMAYANA?
by
Dr. Nitish Priyadarshi
Breaking a tradition since the creation of Jharkhand state of India in 2000, Chief Minister Shibu Soren has refused to burn an effigy of demon king Ravana (king of ancient Sri Lanka), saying he was a "great scholar". In north India, Ravana's effigy is burnt on Vijay Dashmi festival , marking the end of Dusshera celebration and considered to symbolise victory of good over evil. "Soren declined to accept the invitation terming Ravana as Guru or teacher of his ancestors (Kulguru).Mr. Soren said how can one burn the effigy of Kulguru who is worshipped?" Since the creation of the state in November 2000, there was a tradition in Jharkhand that the chief minister sets the Ravana effigy on fire. Close associates of Soren say that Ravana and his forefathers were closely associated with the jungles of Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh.
Ravana was a Brahmin by caste and was revered by the people of the area. The term Ravana is a derogatory reference to him. His original name was Dasamukha which means bearer of ten heads. He plays a major role in Hindu mythology, especially in the Ramayana, where he is mainly depicted negatively as a brute and rapist, and most infamously as having kidnapped Rama's wife Sita and being killed by her husband. Ravana is also mentioned as a great scholar, a capable ruler and a devoted follower of Shiva, and he has his apologists and staunch devotees within the Hindu traditions.Recently a report was published in local news papers regarding finding air port build by the Ravana on the top of Trikoot Hills in Deogarh district of Jharkhand where Ravana used to visit for worshipping Lord Shiva.
According to other concept it is mentioned that the palace of Ravana was made of pure gold. Jharkhand was rich in gold deposits in ancient days. Probably gold used in the palace was brought from Jharkhand. So the palace must have been built here seeing the abundant presence of gold. People are still found panning gold from the sands of the local rivers after rainy season. At present many Indian news channels are searching the historical records of the Lord Ram and place of incidents in Ramayana in country of Sri Lanka as well as in India.
After the Ram Setu controversy many of us are showing interest regarding the existence of Lord Ram and his warriors. Recently I found an old research report in my Home Library. Report is regarding the site of the Lanka during the Ramayana age.
Report was published in the year 1971 in the National news paper dated 5/10/1971. According to the report Chotanagpur (Jharkhand State,India) was the Lanka of Ramayana. In other words Ravana lived in Jharkhand. Report has the opinion that the Ramayana belongs to early iron-age and the Lanka in the holy epic can not be the island of Ceylon (Lanka). According to report, the Lanka of the Ramayana was somewhere in the Chotanagpur Plateau (Ranchi and Hazaribag district) of Jharkhand State of India and the ´Vanaras´ and ´Raksasas´(demons) were the merely the Adivasis (tribe) of the area. Asurs were the early settlers in the Jharkhand. It was deduced from archaeological, geographical and botanical interpretation of the clues in the epics. The theory is that the story or the various incidents could have taken place in present Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand Plateau and Eastern Madhya Pradesh as early as 1,500 B.C.Report sited excavations at Kausambi, Prahladpur, Chirand, Sonpur etc. to reveal the existence of a settled way of life about circa 2,000-1,500 B.C. These earlier cultures were destroyed or displaced by an iron-manufacturing people as is evident from archaeological findings at Mahisadal and Rajar-Dhipi.
In Ranchi district alone are found Asur forts and cemeteries. Over a hundred villages scattered through this region have Asur sites of this "long ancient people", who were thought by the Mundas(type of tribe) as a tall, huge limbed race of Herculean strength, having a much higher civilization. Asur graves are in irregular order and are marked by the slabs. The roof stones are generally 8 feet and sometimes 10 to 12 feet long. Report concludes that the critical edition of Ramayana belongs to the early iron age. " this is amply proved by the repeated references to weapons of ´Kalayasa´, Karsayasa´ and ´Ayasa´ definitely means iron and not copper. At that time in Jharkhand iron smelting by the Asur tribes was flourishing industry. "The iron chest (box) with eight wheels in which the bow of Rudra was kept and which Rama alone could wield, requires highly advanced iron technology.

Monday, October 6, 2008

Why Palamau district in Jharkhand State of India faces famine from ancient periods?



Why Palamau district in Jharkhand State of India faces famine from ancient periods?
by
Dr. Nitish Priyadarshi

Palamau district in Jharkhand State of India is reeling under drought. Crops have been destroyed and the region is facing a famine-like situation. In spite of heavy rains in its surrounding districts this year, Palamau district is devoid of sufficient rain. It has not only affected the crops but also depleted the ground water and well water forcing people to drink contaminated water.
Palamau is a district of Jharkhand state, India. The district lies between 23°50′ and 24°8′ north latitude and between 83°55′ and 84°30′ east longitude. It is bordered on the north by river Son and Bihar, on the east by districts of Chatra and Hazaribagh , on the south by Latehar District and on the west by Garhwa District.
The district covers an area of 5043 square kilometers and has a population of 1,533,176.
Daltonganj, situated on North Koel river in the district headquarters. The town is named after Colonel Dalton, Commissioner of Chhota Nagpur in 1861.
The district has been a chronic sufferer from famine, drought, and scarcity conditions from the ancient times. Floods are not a problem as the rivers are mostly hilly excepting Son which is a perennial river and occasionally creates havoc in certain pockets. Cyclones of major intensity are not known.

The Indian Irrigation Commission described Palamau as the driest and probably the poorest district of the province. The frequent draughts and famines or scarcity conditions that have visited this district within the last century support this observation. The district falls within the retreating range of the south-west monsoon and as such rainfall is wholly dependent upon local conditions and local winds which are seldom favourable to the district. Also due to the beautiful Netharhat hill ranges the area comes under rain shadow zone. Rain clouds moving towards Palamau district are trapped within this hills resulting scanty rainfall in the area.

Rain shadow is warm and dry because as moist air masses coming from the Chotanagpur plateau rise to the top of Netharhat hills the air cools and it's temperature decreases until it reaches it's dew point, the point at which the condenses as rain, and then falls either on the windward side or atop the hills. These results in heavy rainfall in the Netharhat area. This is called orographic lifting precipitation. The effect of this phenomenon is the creation of an arid region on the leeward side of hills. Also, the warm air absorbs moisture from the already dry and warm air . The land gets little precipitation because all the moisture is lost on the Netharhat hills. Furthermore, the warm air absorbs moisture from the already dry land.

Within the period of last century there have been famines in 1859-60, 1873-74, 1896-97, 1899-1900 and 1918-19 and there have been several years of scarcity up to 1956 and the worst of all was perhaps that of the year 1955.

The rainfall in Palamau is not only scanty but very capricious in its distribution. There are, it is true, a large number of rivers and streams in the district, but in most of them the supply of water diminishes rapidly or fails entirely soon after the end of the scanty rains.

From old records and reports it will appear that that in 1868 there was a failure of different crops and winter rice due to absence of rain and this caused a famine in 1869. the most affected areas were the north-east and north-west of the district and to a small extent the central areas. In 1873-74, there was again a failure of different local crops and there was a general famine affecting Japla and Belaunja in the north, Deogan and Untari in the extreme north-east and north-west. In 1896 there was again an unfavourable distribution of rain which led to the famine of 1897.
The southern part of this district which overgrown with thick forests and jungles gets more rainfall than the northern part which is almost a plain land bordering district of Gaya. Distribution of rain seems to have been more disturbed from the last five decades. One of the reasons may be the indiscriminate exploitation of forest.

The only solutions to fight such condition is to grow more forest and interlink the rivers through canals.

Saturday, October 4, 2008

Earthquake Is Caused By The Rising of Land, Not Drifting of Land.

The Islands of Indonesia are continuously rising
Soon after Tsunami, which killed more than two and a half lakhs of people and had originated from the island, Sumatra, it was found out that, after the earthquake the north western part of the island simeulue, which was in that region had risen about three feet high above sea level. On account of this, a new shore had formed on the north western part of the island. In addition to that; the sea sponges which were on the sea bed were visible above the sea level!
Three months after the earthquake on 26th December, 2004, another quake occurred on 28th March 2005 after which simeulue was found to be four feet above sea level. Apart from this, for an area of about three hundred kilometers, sea sponges which are normally found below the sea could be seen from all visible areas!
Why did the island rise four feet above sea level ?
As the molten rock keeps cooling gradually, the rocky plates that are formed at different levels are of less thickness and density and they keep rising continuously.The main reason is that, when the molten rock cools, the water and hot gases get released and the rocky plates that are formed are of lesser thickness than the magma in which they formed. Water has a higher density and the ice cubes formed from it have a lower density and they tend to float on water Likewise, the molten rock material which has a higher density produces rocky plates which have a lower density and these move above sea level and form islands.When new plates are produced by the molten rock material, they start moving upwards thereby pushing the plates which were already formed. The plates suddenly start rising upwards due to intense pressure.Similar to the ripples that are formed and expanded when a plate of water is hit at the centre from below with a finger, when the island simeulue, which was found in the central part of the Indian Ocean suddenly rose up, the water was pushed aside in all directions and only this resulted in Tsunami.
The frequent occurrences of earthquakes and Tsunami in Indonesia are only due to the sudden rising of the islands.

But, the geologists have come up with a different explanation for the earthquakes which occur there. They say that, about six and a half crores of years ago, India was an island on the southern part of the equator. It moved slowly towards north and collided with Asia about five crores of years ago and it is still continuing its movement. The geologists also opine that due to this movement, when the indo-Australian plate suddenly went below the Burmese plate on December 26th, 2004, an earthquake occurred. There is no truth in what they say because even six and a half crores of years ago India had been part of Asia in the same place as it is found now.The fossils of mammals which lived in Asia six and a half years ago have been excavated in the form of bones by Professor Ashok Sahani of Punjab University and Professor G.V.R. Prasad of Jammu University in the village of Naskal at Andhra Pradesh and they prove that the above statement is true. So, as per the researchers’ opinion, India had not been an island on the southern part of the equator about six and a half crores of years agoSo, it is proved that even six and a half crores of years ago India had been part of Asia in the same place as it is found now and is not moving in the north eastern direction. Therefore the indo-Australian plate did not go suddenly below the Burmese plate. So the earth quakes on 26 -12 -2004 and 28 – 3 -2005 and the Tsunami are only the result of the rising of the island, simeulue, above its original level.
Subject: Rising of the earth’s crust is responsible for producing earthquakes, Submission of report for publishing.
Earthquake is caused due to the movement of the land is a myth.
The most important thing that is missing in this view is that there is no explanation for why earthquake occurs in the centre of the land instead of the peripheral area. Actually the land is rising in different places. This is the reason why earthquakes occur only in the central parts of the land. To be specific, after an earthquake occurred on September 30th of 1993, in the village named Killari, it was found that the land had risen about three feet in height. This shows that the rise of the land is the cause of the earthquake.
‘Reasons for the Rise of the Earth’s Crust’
Earthquake is the effect of the rise of the land.
On September 30th 1993, the earthquake that hit the village, killari, situated in central part of India resulted in the death of more than eight thousand people and raised the land surface about three feet high. This elevation was seen in an area of around two kilometers.
Why did the earthquake occur?
The quake occurred only in killari, situated in central India and left two kilometers of land area raised. This proves that the earthquake occurred only due to the rise of the land.Apart from this, the pictures taken by the satellite before the quake showed that the temperature of killari had also risen and the pictures taken after the quake showed it to be normal. After the earthquake occurred, on the borders of Andhra and Karnataka white colored smoke emitted from the ground.
Why did the land rise? Why was the temperature more? Why did the land emit white colored smoke?

We know that the molten rock material called magma is found inside the earth as we have seen it coming out through volcanoes. In the same way, when the molten rock, lava flows on the earth’s surface, we can see the condensed steam and other gases in the form of white colored smoke.As the water and other hot gases are eliminated as steam, the molten rock cools down and turned in to rock. In the same way when the molten rock inside the earth starts cooling, water and Other hot gases come out in the form of white smoke. Due to this, the temperature of the land rises.Moreover when the molten rock cools and as the water and hot gases get released, the rocky plates that are formed are of less thickness. For example: water has a higher density and the ice cubes formed from it have a lower density and float on water. Likewise, the molten rock material which has a higher density produces rocky plates which have a lower density and move above the level of the molten rock. In the same way, when new plates are produced by the molten rock material, they start moving upwards there by pushing the plates which were already formed. On account of this movement, the edges of the plates rub against each other thereby causing earthquakes.For example, in 1356 an earthquake occurred in the city Basel in Switzerland which is situated in central Europe. In the same city, an organization which produces electricity using the heat from underground, drilled two holes of five meters each on the earth in the year 2006.The project was to send cold water through the first hole which would be changed into steam using the heat of the molten rock and pushed out through the second hole and by rotating dynamos; this would be converted into electricity. But, on the eighth day after the water was sent inside the earth, in the same place, the Richter scale recorded an earthquake with an intensity of 3.4. Even if atom bombs are tested underground, earthquakes do not occur. How could the water which seeped inside produce an earthquake? This clearly shows that the water which seeped inside the earth cooled the molten rock which in turn formed new plates that rose up and caused the earthquake.
Volcanic activity in central Europe.
Vogtland, which is situated in central Europe , had often been experiencing a number of minor earthquakes.In the same place, a researcher by the name Dr,Karin brauer collected the bubbles which came out along with an underground spring in a marshy area and through his research, found out that gases were emitted from a volcano. Based on his research, he says that when the molten rock rises, the pressure of the gases increases and this results in the formation of cracks on rocks which may ultimately result in earthquakes.But for millions of years in the past, these gases have been coming out of the earth. Apart from this, there are spaces for these gases to be eliminated. We have already seen this fact and the gases do not have enough pressure to bring about an earthquake.A few years ago from the mountainous part of Nilgiris in India , smoke were seen emanating from earth, but fortunately no earthquake was caused. Likewise, Matsushiro in central Japan also experienced a number of mild quakes. To find out the reason for these quakes, a researcher by the name yoshida collected Water from the hot water springs found there and through experimentation discovered that the water was from the molten rock found underground.So, she surmises that,” The water which is underground comes out with great pressure and this produces cracks on the rocky plates and this results in earthquakes”. But, the water and gases which are underground have been surfacing through the spaces found between the rocky plates for millions of years in the past. So, the reason for the continuous tremors and the elevation of land is only due to the slow rising of the rocky plates.
For example Wyoming found in central part of North America has more than three hundred hot water springs.
Due to the deposit of sulphur from the water, the rocks in that area appear yellowish in colour. So, the area of hot water springs is referred to as yellow Stone Park . Each year that place experiences about two thousand mild tremors. Between January, 2008 and March 2008, 287 tremors have rocked the place. Moreover it has been found out through satellite research that the land area of 60 miles is continuously raising. To be specific, starting from 2004 till 2006, the land area has been rising at the rate of 2.8 inches every year and has risen to a height of seven inches in three years. It is still rising.But research scholars say that, it is only the effect of the expansion of the molten rock due to heat.
But the surfacing of the water only shows that the molten rock is cooling.
So the release of water and the gases from the molten rock cools the molten rock. This results in the formation of new plates and the rising in the land level in the central part of the continents and results in tremors in those areas only.
There will be an earthquake tomorrow.
One week before an earthquake struck the city of haicheng on 30th February, 1975, on the north eastern part of China , it was officially announced that a quake would strike the city.People abandoned their houses and assembled in an open area in the snow fall. For one week nobody did any work. As announced there was an earthquake of 7.3 magnitudes which was recorded on the Richter scale.Two thousand and thirteen people lost their lives. It was estimated that if precaution had not been taken, the death toll would have exceeded one and a half lakhs! The whole world looked at China with surprise and when asked, they said that for the past one year slight tremors were occurring and they were gradually getting intensified. They also explained that, during the previous week there was tremendous change in the underground water table.But, in the next year, the earthquake which struck the city of Tang Shan situated in the north eastern part of China killed two and a half lakhs of people and severely wounded more than one and a half lakhs of people.The Chinese geologists said that on this occasion there were no preceding tremors. During the earthquake in haicheng, sulphur gas and in Tang Shan carbon-di-oxide were eliminated from underground. Regarding this incident, Carol Raymond is a geophysicist at NASA's, said “Only if we know how an earthquake is caused, we can warn about it in advance”.
How Does an Earthquake occur?
When the rocky plates under the ground rise and their edges rub with each other, an earthquake is caused. Moreover, the water and the gases found between them are under great pressure when these plates rise and so come above the surface of the earth.Hence, it is understood that the hot gases and water which come out of the earth and the temperature changes are the most authentic warnings of an approaching earthquake. So, by closely and continuously monitoring the temperature changes through satellite observations and finding out the depth and temperature in which the molten rock is found in a particular place, the occurrence of an earthquake can be predicted in advance. Based on it, if precautions are taken, great loss to human life can be prevented.
Continents are not drifting, but rising...
In 1835, when scientist Charles Darwin came to Galapagos Island which is located at Pacific Ocean, thousand km far away from South America , he found giant tortoises. He was surprised to see the presence of the tortoise because each one would weigh around 250 kilo, which look like a rock and those tortoises couldn’t float in the sea even for a second.According to the researchers, these tortoises might come from South America by floating by means of tree branches for two weeks when storm hit. But the tree branches can not float in the same dimension and it will roll and flow. Meantime, these tortoises have no fingers in their legs like elephants. And so, it is not possible for these animals to escape from falling in to the river, when the tree branches roll and flow... It is interrogated such as how this animal could survive for two week with out any food and water. The researchers explained that these animals have the ability to store the enormous fats and water in their body. So they manage to live for two week with out having any food and water.Moreover, Trevor worth, one of the researchers, has taken the jaw and leg bones of a rat like animal which lived 10 million years ago in the New Zealand , An island which situated two thousand kilometers far away from Australia continent. This animal has a bulged structure on the upper part of the leg bone. So it is found that its locomotion was hopping like kangaroo. Therefore it is impossible for the animal to reach the island by floating tree branches, According to Michael archer, a paleontology researcher.The researchers said that the tortoises had taken two weeks to reach the Galapagos Island , a thousand kilometer away from South America , by means of floating tree branches. Similarly, it would take at least four weeks far the rat to arrive New Zealand by means of floating tree branches, which is located two thousand kilometer away from Australia .Could a small animal like rat live for a long period with out having any food and water? Then how the animal reached New Zealand ? Hear the only possibility is extreme low sea level and exposed land connection, on which the animal migration took place, to reach Remote Island From the Australian continent. Moreover dinosaur’s bones were also found in the island called Chatham which is located near the New Zealand . Indicate the dinosaur’s migration also took place between the continents due to the low sea level of ten thousand feet.But the presence of closely related dinosaur’s bones on different continents leads to think other researchers differently. They think that all the continents were once jointly present and later separated and drifting apart. But the ancient low sea level of ten thousand feet is the only possible reason for the spreading of ancient animals on other continents.At the same time the presence of fossils of sea animals such as whales and ammonites indicates that all the continents were once lie under the sea and later rose above sea level. And this rising of land masses caused the earthquake.
Contributing Writer Scientist, G. Ponmudi. Chennai I am working as a junior assistant in the health department. And my qualification is Bsc (zoology). I have been working on earthquake research for the past five years. g.ponmudi@yahoo.com

Friday, October 3, 2008

Did climate change killed ancient civilization?

Did climate change killed ancient civilization?
by

Dr. Nitish Priyadarshi
Devastating Kosi floods in India, floods in China, floods in Mexico, droughts in some parts of the world, extremes of climates and lots more. Effects are dying people and displacement. Is these phenomenon is recent or earlier too our ancient civilization was affected with climate change?

We assume that we are first to deal with such severe environmental issues, when that’s just not the case. Earlier too our oldest civilization passed through environmental disaster and climate change which gradually ended the ancient civilization. Even the most developed civilization like Indus Valley civilization, Maya civilization and Sumerians were affected with environmental changes like floods, droughts etc. Lots of theories and causes have been put forward regarding decline of these developed civilizations. But after going through the different research reports, it can be said that climate change ended the ancient civilizations in different phases.
Native global flood stories are documented as history or legend in almost every region on earth. Old world missionaries reported their amazement at finding remote tribes already possessing legends with tremendous similarities to the Bible's accounts of the worldwide flood. H.S. Bellamy in Moons, Myths and Men estimates that altogether there are over 500 Flood legends worldwide. Ancient civilizations such as (China, Babylonia, Wales, Russia, India, America, Hawaii, Scandinavia, Sumatra, Peru, and Polynesia) all have their own versions of a giant flood.
This article attempts to bring to light some of the environmental problems which occurred through out our history from one civilization to other.

Indus valley civilization
The Indus or the Harappan culture is older than the chalcolithic cultures. It arose in the north-western part of the Indian subcontinent. It is called Harappan because this civilization was discovered first in 1921 at the modern site of Harappa situated in the province of West Punjab in Pakistan.
Comparatively rainless, the Indus region is not so fertile these days. Its prosperous villages and towns show that it was fertile in ancient times. At present it has only rainfall of about 15 cm. in the fourth century B.C. one of the historians of the Alexander informs us that Sindh was a fertile part of the country. In earlier times the Indus possessed more natural vegetation which attracted more rainfall. It supplied timber fuel for baking bricks on a large scale, and also for construction. In course of time, natural vegetation was destroyed by the extension of agriculture, large scale grazing, and supply of fuel.
A possible natural reason for the Indus Valley civilization decline is connected with climate change that is also signaled for the neighboring areas of the Middle East: The Indus valley climate grew significantly cooler and drier from about 1800 BCE, linked to a general weakening of the monsoon at that time. Alternatively, a crucial factor may have been the disappearance of substantial portions of the Ghaggar Hakra river system. A tectonic event may have diverted the system's sources toward the Ganges Plain, though there is complete uncertainty about the date of this event as most settlements inside Ghaggar-Hakra river beds have not yet been dated.
The Harappan culture declined suddenly between 1800-1700 BC and its end is as puzzling as its beginning. How and why did this first great empire of South Asia decay into oblivion? One cannot say with certainty whether massacres by marauders or the inbuilt decay that had set in caused the decline of this powerful civilization. Another school of thought relates the demise of the Indus valley civilization to have been brought about by a major tectonic shift that caused continuous floods of this area.
Research has proved that the decline of the glorious Harappan culture was due to a variety of factors, both manmade and natural. In the beginning of the second millennium BC, there were great changes in the environmental conditions-the climate changed and large parts of the plains were flooded when tectonic changes threw up a dam in the lower Indus Valley.
Sumerian civilization:
Sumer, located in southern Mesopotamia, is one of the earliest known civilizations in the world. The Sumerians were the first group that everyone can agree is worthy of being called a “civilization”. They arose in what is today Iraq some time around the 6th millennium BC, and were conquered by about 2400 BC. The Sumerians arose in the area known as the “Fertile Crescent”. This area of land, also called Mesopotamia, was an oasis of fertile land sandwiched between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.
Soil salinity in this region had been long recognized as a major problem. Poorly drained irrigated soils, in an arid climate with high levels of evaporation, led to the buildup of dissolved salts in the soil, eventually reducing agricultural yields severely. During the Akkadian and Ur III phases, there was a shift from the cultivation of wheat to the more salt-tolerant barley, but this was insufficient, and during the period from 2100 BC to 1700 BC, it is estimated that the population in this area declined by nearly 3/5ths.
Most farms had to be irrigated with ditches fed by the rivers. This was wildly successful. For the first time in history, there was a food surplus. This in turn led to a population surplus, with people in cities abandoning agricultural labor and eating the surplus produced by farmers.
Like all good things, it couldn’t last. There was an inherent flaw in the system. The hot sun evaporated most of water, leaving behind salt. Where the water didn’t quickly evaporate, the water table rose, also bringing salt to the surface.
After years and years of salt slowly accumulating, a tipping point was reached. The land had become too salty for the wheat production. The only way to reclaim the land was to let it lie fallow for several years.

There is a wealth of evidence pointing to severe environmental issues in the Sumerian civilization. One of the most important pieces of information from that time is the Epic of Gilgamesh, an ancient poem about the mythological hero-king Gilgamesh and his search for immortality. Even in this work there are mentions of environmental problems. After thousands of years of existence, a lack of food brought on by the unproductive soil crippled the Sumerians.
Maya Civilization:
Originating in the Yucatan Peninsula, the ancient Maya civilization occupied a vast area of Mesoamerica between the time period of 2600 BC and 1200 AD. Constructing thousands of architectural structures and developing sophisticated concepts surrounding the disciplines of astronomy and mathematics, the Maya civilization rose to a cultural florescence between the years of 600 to 800 AD. Although this prosperity reigned for nearly two centuries, the Maya civilization met with misfortune between the years of 800 and 900 AD.
During this time period, known by archaeologists as the Classic Collapse of the Maya civilization, many southern cities were abandoned and most cultural activities ceased. The Maya, never able to regain their cultural or geographical prominence, were assimilated into other Mesoamerican civilizations until the time of the Spanish Conquest in 1530 AD.
The cause of the collapse of the Classic Maya civilization represents one of the great archaeological mysteries of our time, and has been debated by scholars for nearly a century. Some scientists theorize that the paleoclimate of the region was not only different than the present day climate, but the natural climate variability of the past could have included a period of intense drought that occurred in conjunction with the Classic Maya Collapse.

The sudden demise is one of the greatest archeological mysteries of our time. What caused the collapse of the great Maya civilization?


The answer, say researchers, is climate change. According to a new study published in the issue of Science journal , a long period of dry climate, punctuated by three intense droughts, led to the end of the Maya society. "Climate change is to blame for one of the most catastrophic collapses in human history," said Gerald Haug, a professor of geology at the University of Potsdam, Germany, and one of the study's authors.
The drought hypothesis is not new. Sediments taken by scientists in 2001 from a lake on the Yucatan peninsula showed that a series of extended droughts coincided with major cultural upheavals among the Maya people.

Experts say the Maya were particularly susceptible to long droughts because about 95 percent of their population centers depended solely on lakes, ponds, and rivers containing on average an 18-month supply of water for drinking and agriculture.

Reference:

Ancient India by Ram Sharan Sharma, NCERT, New Delhi.

http://india.mapsofindia.com/the-country/ancient-history/indus-valley-civilization.html

http://www.mohenjodaro.net/indusdecline.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sumer#Decline

http://www.environmentalgraffiti.com/offbeat-news/environmentalism-in-3000-bc/912

· Stefan Lovgren for National Geographic News, March 13, 2003. Climate Change Killed off Maya Civilization.
Hodell, D. A., J. H. Curtis and M. Brenner. 1995. Possible role of climate in the collapse of Classic Maya civilization. Nature 375:391-394.