Wednesday, December 29, 2010

Ganga is still waiting for its purification.

In spite of several announcements and promising by the different Governments Ganga still remains polluted.
Dr. Nitish Priyadarshi

National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA) presented a time frame of another 10 years to the Supreme Court of India, promising to clean up Ganges by 2020.

Much polluted water has flown under the bridge since the Central Ganga Authority (CGA)was formed in 1985 under the Prime minister Rajiv Gandhi, promulgating the Ganga Action Plan (GAP). At the 1981 session of Indian Science Congress at Varanasi, scientists expressed concern at the growing pollution in the river Ganga in presence of the then Prime Minister Mrs. Indira Gandhi who inaugurated the session. At her instance, Dr. M.S. Swaminathan, the then member, Planning Commission asked the Central Board for Preventation and Control of Water Pollution, New Delhi to conduct studies on the state of the river Ganga. In collaboration with the State Pollution Control Boards of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Bengal and the centre for study of Man and Environment Kolkata (Calcutta), studies were conducted on the ‘Sources’ of pollution including all human activities, land use pattern and water quality of the river at selected sites during 1981-82 and report entitled “Basin, sub-basin inventory of water pollution in the Ganga basin part-II” was published in 1984. According to this report sewage of 27 class I cities and towns and effluents from 137 major industries were the main source of pollution of the river. In addition cremation.

In spite of several announcements and promising by the different Governments Ganga still remains polluted. The World Bank has stepped forward with an offer of $ 1 Billion to help save the Ganga. Funds are sufficient but its lack of political will and bureaucratic apathy that stands in the way.

This river has became the dumping ground for domestic and industrial wastes. The uninterrupted release of toxic materials into the river not only affected the aquatic life of this river but also turned these natural sources of water virtually into a nullah carrying all the city waste.

There has been a steady deterioration in the quality of water of Indian rivers over several decades. India’s fourteen major, 55 minor and several hundred small rivers receive millions of litres of sewage, industrial and agricultural wastes. Most of these rivers have been rendered to the level of sewage flowing drains. There are serious water quality problems in the cities, towns and villages using these waters. Water borne diseases are rampant, fisheries are on decline, and even cattle are not spared from the onslaught of pollution.

According to World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) five rivers in Asia serving over 870 million people are among the most threatened in the world, as dams, water extraction and climate change all take their toll.

The Ganges, Indus, Yangtze, Salween-Nu and Mekong-Lancang rivers make up half of the WWF’s “top ten” most threatened river basins.

River Ganga (Ganges) of India has been held in high esteem since time immemorial and Hindus from all over the world cherish the idea of a holy dip in the river under the faith that by doing so they will get rid of their sins of life. More than 400 million people live along the Ganges River. An estimated 2,000,000 persons ritually bathe daily in the river. Historically also, Ganga is the most important river of the country and beyond doubt is closely connected with the history of civilization as can be noticed from the location of the ancient cities of Hardwar, Prayag, Kashi and Patliputra at its bank. To millions of people it is sustainer of life through multitude of canal system and irrigation of the wasting load. Hundreds of the villages and even the big cities depend for their drinking water on this river. It is believed, a fact which has also been observed, that the water of Ganga never decays even for months and years when water of other rivers and agencies begins to develop bacteria and fungi within a couple of days. This self purification characteristic of Ganga is the key to the holiness and sanctity of its water.

During the past three decades, the country's explosive growth (at nearly 1.2 billion people, India's population is second only to China's), industrialization and rapid urbanization have put unyielding pressure on the sacred stream.

Ganga, the most sacred of rivers for Hindus, has become polluted for some years now. But a recent study by Uttarakhand Environment Conservation and Pollution Control Board says that the level of pollution in the holy river has reached alarming proportions.

Things have come to such a pass that the Ganga water is at present not fit just for drinking and bathing but has become unusable even for agricultural purposes.
As per the UECPCB study, while the level of coliform present in water should be below 50 for drinking purposes, less than 500 for bathing and below 5000 for agricultural use—the present level of coliform in Ganga at Haridwar has reached 5500.

In Varanasi, India's most sacred city, the coliform bacterial count is at least 3,000times higher than the standard established as safe by the United Nations world Health Organization. Coliform are rod-shaped bacteria that are normally found in the colons of humans and animals and become a serious contaminant when found in the food or water supply.

A study by Environmental Biology Laboratory, Department pf Zoology, Patna University, showed the presence of mercury in the Ganga river in Varanasi city. According to the study, annual mean concentration of mercury in the river water was 0.00023 ppm (parts per million). The concentration ranged from NT (not traceable) to 0.00191 ppm.

Study done by Indian Toxicological Research Centre (ITRC), Lucknow during 1986-1992 showed maximum annual concentration of mercury in the Ganga river water at Rishikesh, Allahabad district and Dakshineswar as 0.081, 0.043 and 0.012 ppb (parts per billion) respectively.

Monitoring of Ganga River from Rishikesh to Varanasi indicated that Kannauj to Kanpur and Varanasi are the most polluted stretches of the river Ganga . Analysis of upstream and down stream water and sediment revealed a 10-fold increase in chromium level.

The tannery industry mushrooming in North India has converted the Ganga River into a dumping ground. The tanning industry discharges different types of waste into the environment, primarily in the form of liquid effluents containing organic matters, chromium, sulphide ammonium and other salts. As per an estimate, about 80-90% of the tanneries use chromium as a tanning agent. Of this, the hides take up only 50-70%, while the rest is discharged as effluent. Pollution becomes acute when tanneries are concentrated in clusters in small area like Kanpur. Consequently, the Leather-tanning sector is included in the Red category of industries due to the potential adverse environmental impact caused by tannery wastes.

What hope is there for the Ganga? There is, in the River Thames in England. “Thames, which remained polluted for many years in the wake of the Industrial Revolution and rapid urbanization is now pristinely clean”. It is just a matter of having the will and working together.

Indeed we have no choice but to work together to salvage the Ganga, if we expected to be bestowed with salvation by this river from the heavens any longer.

Monday, December 20, 2010

Geochemistry of Iodine with special reference to Bihar state of India.

Iodine deficiency is an important global health problem.
8 person out of every hundred, suffer from goiter in India.
Dr. Nitish Priyadarshi

Halogens are present and are volatile trace elements in most geological samples. Among them, iodine has the lowest abundance; less than 0.1 ppm in igneous rocks and less than several ppm in sedimentary rocks.

Iodine is least abundant of the halogens and is lithophile element. It is typically a dispersed element and is never concentrated enough in rocks or sediments to form independent minerals. The content of iodine is higher in air masses of marine origin than in those over the continents (Rankama and Sahama, 1950). The content of iodine seems to have some relationship to the salinity of the sea water as it is found to increase to the rise in salinity. Iodine is carried away from the atmosphere partly by rainwater and partly by direct adsorption into the soil and into plants. High solubility of iodine makes it enriched in soil and its highest concentration is noted in cultivated soil. According to most comprehensive observation by Goldschmidt(1954), the concentration of iodine in different media is as follows:

Igneous rock- 0.3 gm/tonne.
Cultivated soil- 2.0 gm/tonne.
Air- 0.0005 gm/tonne.
Rain water- 0.001-0.003 gm/tonne.
Sea water- 0.05 gm/tonne.

Konovalov (1959) found that rivers draining Tertiary marine sediment have higher iodine content than rivers draining other areas and this was considered to be due to iodine being easily leached from the marine sediments.

There is very marked increase in the iodine content of soils as compared to the rocks from which they derive. Many authors have suggested that much of the iodine in soils is derived from atmospheric sources, while another major source of soil iodine is that supplied by plant remains. Silty and clay soils appear to be enriched in iodine. It was found that clay fractions of soil fix iodide, a feature which is most marked for illite.

It has been generally accepted that the oceans are a major source of atmospheric origin; other sources are volcanic gases and rotting bio-materials. It has also been observed that some iodine in urban atmosphere may be derived from combustion of fossil fuels.

Iodine is a micro constituent in all plants and animals. Its influence on plant life is unknown and it may only be ballast element (Rankama and Sahama, 1950). Average content of iodine in marine life (from both plant and animal) is more than the fresh water and inland life (Cauer, 1938). In higher animals like mammals it plays a very important role, when it is present in the thyroid gland in the form of amino acid-thyroxin that controls the rate of metabolism.

Aside from tungsten, iodine is the heaviest element to be essential in living organisms, and iodine is the heaviest element thought to be needed by higher animals. About 19,000 tons are produced annually from natural sources.

A case study of Bihar State in India:

Iodine deficiency is an important global health problem with an estimated 200 million people affected by iodine related problems (Moynahan,1979). Indian Coalition for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD) reveals that 79 million or 8 person out of every hundred, suffer from goiter in India (Hindustan Times, New Delhi, 25-11-2001).

The human body contains very little iodine (0.00004% or 0.4 ppm), yet it is essentially required to be maintained through food and water. Any disruption in iodine content jeopardizes the human metabolism. Thyroxin, a hormone secreted by the thyroid gland located on both side of the trachea contains about 65% iodine. In the absence of optimal quantity of iodine, the gland increases in size to compensate the deficiency of iodine and adversely affects the human metabolism. Water with iodine concentration less than 5-10 µg/l produces goiter.

The Gandak basin in Bihar is also known to be goiter prone since long. A detail research was carried out by Prof. N.C. Ghose (2003) of Department of Geology, Patna University on distribution of iodine in soil-water system in the Gandak Basin in Bihar.

According to Prof. Ghose, the vast tract in Gandak basin in north Bihar is known iodine deficient area and the population is prone to dreaded and endemic disease like goiter. Surface water of this area, iodine content ranges from 1.56 µg/l to 5.52 µg/l, while in groundwater which is the only source for drinking, it varies from 2.1 µg/l to 4.56 µg/l. In soil, the iodine content ranges between 3.65 µg/gm to 12.59 µg/gm. Season wise, there is considerable variation in iodine content both in surface and groundwater. During monsoon it reduces considerably in surface water due to dilution and in groundwater it reduces owing to heavy recharge of the aquifer system through infiltration. In soil, there is no definite pattern in seasonal variation in iodine content. In major part of the study area, the iodine content is deficient and ranges between 3 and 4 µg/l. The cause of low iodine is attributed to repeated floods and erosion of top soil which is the main source of iodine to the groundwater system.

The spatial variation of iodine in both surface and groundwater reveals a striking feature. It is observed that the abundance of iodine both in surface and groundwater decreases downstream from West Champaran to Vaishali. However, in surface water, the profile of iodine content of river Gandak increases again near Hajipur, where it rises to 5.52 µg/l. the high incidence of iodine at the confluence of Ganga and Gandak near Patna is due to mixing of the two river waters.

Low iodine content in water (1-4 µg/l) in the vast tract of land in East and West Champaran, Muzaffarpur and Vaishali districts of North Bihar plain makes the people vulnerable to goiter.


Rankama, K. and Sahama, Th. G. (1950) Geochemistry, Univ. Chicago Press, Chicago,912p.

Goldschmidt, V.M. (1954) Geochemistry, Clarendon Press, Oxford,730p.

Cauer, H. (1938) Chemisch-bioklimatogische Studien in der Bretagne. II. Mitteilung: Beeinflussung de mitteleuropaischen Jodmilieus durch die Breton ische Jodindustrie auf dem Wege der Luft. Biochen, Z. 299, p.69.

Moynahan, E.J. (1979) Trace elements in man. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, B-288, pp.65-79.

Konovalov, G.S. (1959) Removal of microelements by the main rivers of the U.S.S.R. Dokl. Acad. Sci. S.S.S.R. 129, p912.

Ghose, N.C., Das, K. and Saha, D. (2003) Distribution of Iodine in Soil-Water system in the Gandak Basin, Bihar, Journal of Geol. Soc. of India, pp 91-98.

Tuesday, December 7, 2010

Trees are threat to the President of India.

Trees were cut down mercilessly.
Dr. Nitish Priyadarshi

Most of the old trees were cut down on the route of President of India in Ranchi. She is arriving here on 9th December for the convocation in Ranchi University. Local administration feels that these trees are threat to the President. But astonishingly most of the top authorities and ministers are unaware of the cutting down the trees. So this is the way we are protecting our